women of algiers in their room, by eugene delacroix, 1834. hookahs in art

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Women of Algiers in their Room, by Eugene Delacroix, 1834. Hookahs in Art. http://www.discoverhookah.com/store/pages.php? pageid=9

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  • Slide 1
  • Women of Algiers in their Room, by Eugene Delacroix, 1834. Hookahs in Art. http://www.discoverhookah.com/store/pages.php?pageid=9
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  • Second & Third-Hand Smoke Exposure in Private Homes: Current & Future Clinical Interventions & Ecological Contexts The Johns Hopkins University 3/28/11
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  • The Behavioral Ecological Model Based on Biology/Ecology Selection of Species Selection of Behavior Principles of Learning Across All Animal Species Emphasizes Environment Determinants Based on Principles of Learning Contingencies of Reinforcementincentives or rewards Hierarchical & interacting contingencies Meta-and Macro-contjngencies Motivating operations or Moderating Factors
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  • The Problem with Behavior It is a stream Its a stream interacting with the environment The entire environment is also a stream Neither will hold still Its very hard to measure a stream Its almost impossible to measure multiple streams Measuring Streams is prerequisite to Modifying behavior Measuring Multiple behaviors from multiple people residing in multiple social networks are the streams to be targeted by behavioral science
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  • Social Networks Defined by Contingencies Asthmatic Preteen Passive Exposure Father Smoker Smoking is Macho Peer Smoking is Cool Sister Hates smoke Doctor Advises Never Smoke Uncle Smoker Hates smoke Mother smoker
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  • Cascading & Interlocking Contingencies Mom asks Dad to Smoke outside A B C Counselor prompts C A B B Dad smokes outside A C Avoids Criticism; protects child
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  • Cascading & Interlocking Contingencies Asks Visitors Not to smoke A B C Legislative Bans C A B B Boss smokes outside A C Thanks/avoids Criticism
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  • BEHAVIORAL COUNSELING PROGRAM Parents contract to reduce their childs ETS ExposureParents contract to reduce their childs ETS Exposure Short-term goalsShort-term goals Self-monitoringSelf-monitoring Positive feedbackPositive feedback Problem-solving brainstormingProblem-solving brainstorming Recruitment of social contingenciesRecruitment of social contingencies 4-14 sessions in the home and by phone4-14 sessions in the home and by phone
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  • ~ ~ ~ The Role of Clinicians ~ Nonsmoker ModelsNonsmoker Models Deliver Tobacco Control ServicesDeliver Tobacco Control Services Contract with parents and other family membersContract with parents and other family members Address ETS as Lead contaminationAddress ETS as Lead contamination Promote Policies for reimbursement of tobacco control servicesPromote Policies for reimbursement of tobacco control services Promote Laws restricting ETS exposure community-widePromote Laws restricting ETS exposure community-wide Most providers do few of theseMost providers do few of these
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  • Cross Validity of Measures Contamination: Exposure: Child Urine Cotinine ------.65------- Indoor Air Nicotine | | | | | | __________ | |.63 _________\___ |.62 | / \ | |.71.41 | | / \ | Reported Indoor ------.78--------- Reported Smoking in Smoking presence of the child
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  • Results: Cotinine (geometric means) Intervention Phase Group by time (linear) interaction significant (p
  • Cascading & Interacting Contingencies Parents Decontaminates Home A B C C A B B Decontaminates Home A C Sells for > $ Dr Explains Cotinine
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  • Real Time Telemetry and Feedback: SHS exposure Figure 3
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  • Legislative and other Policies: Macro-contingencies that may alter clinical metacontingencies Legislative & Professional Assoc Policies PhysiciansDentistsOptometrists
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  • Tobacco Module #1 Prescription
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  • Dose Effect Tobacco-Use Incidence and Anti-Tobacco Prescriptions * Significant differences between group that received 0-1 prescription.
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  • Proportion of participants who initiated tobacco use stratified by experimental group and friends who think smoking is cool
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  • Study Sites
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  • Social Criticism in Public Places Percentage of respondents who considered it VERY LIKELY TO BE CRITICIZED for smoking inside public places
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  • Secondhand smoke avoidance by preteens: To leave or stay? Tobacco Contingencies for Avoidance Behavior Adjusted Odds Ratio Home Smoking Ban None or partial1.00 Complete1. 56 Family Discouraged SHSe No1.00 Yes1.44 Friends Discouraged SHSe No1.00 Yes1.73 Friends Decline Smoking No1.00 Yes1.52
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  • Conclusions: Anti-tobacco cultures are contagious Differences in social criticism of tobacco varying by proximity, Differences in Home bans differ by proximity to California Workplace bans moderate city effects on home bans Suggests that the exposure to the California anti-tobacco culture is changing the culture of Tijuana.
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  • What do we think? Counseling can decrease SHSe Context Enhances or weakens counseling Measurement reactivity weakens g x t sign SHSe & THSe requires changes in Social Networks, including Providers Real time Feedback may enhance SHSe and THSe control Cascading Contingencies Change Cultures
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  • Waterpipe Use among the Youth Soweid, RA. (2005). Lebanon: waterpipe line to youth. Tobacco Control, 14(6):363-4. A young female is smoking the waterpipe in a public pool area in Lebanon.