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    STAN GETZ: FORGOTTEN BEBOP TENOR SAXOPHONIST

    BY

    MARCUS HARLOWE WOLFE

    B.M., University of North Texas, 1999

    M.M., University of North Texas 2002

    DISSERTATION

    Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements

    for the degree of Doctor of Musical Arts in Music

    in the Graduate College of the

    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2009

    Urbana, Illinois

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    © 2009 by Marcus Harlowe Wolfe. All Rights Reserved.

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    ABSTRACT

    Within the discussion of bebop being an evolution vs. a revolution, Stan Getz’s contributions

    as a tenor saxophonist have been underappreciated. In 1951, Getz demonstrated an

    improvisational vocabulary that was a fusion of his swing era style, inspired by the melodic

    conception of Lester Young, and the harmonic improvisations of Charlie Parker. The objective

    of this project is to establish Getz as a primary disseminator of the bebop style on the tenor

    saxophone by documenting his improvisational vocabulary specific to the era, and comparing it

    to recordings of his contemporaries. A secondary goal will be to support the evolutionary

    argument by showing that his vocabulary was itself a product of the evolutionary process. The

    solos, selected from recordings made in 1950 and 1951, are evaluated concerning harmony,

    melody, rhythm, and macro-level solo construction. With two exceptions, the transcriptions

    selected for this project were from the Storyville Sessions recorded October 28, 1951 in Boston.

    They include “Mosquito Knees”, “Move”, “Parker 51”, “Pennies from Heaven”, “Signal”, and

    “Wildwood”. “Split Kick” was recorded December 10, 1950 and “Yvette” was recorded August

    15, 1951 in New York. All are available on the boxed set Stan Getz: the Complete Roost

     Recordings. The transcriptions are notated in the key of Bb, as they sound on the tenor sax, so

    they can be observed relative to the instrument. From these transcriptions, analysis was

    conducted to provide data for the chapters relative to harmony, melody, rhythm, and macro level

    solo construction.

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES ……………………………………………………………vi

    INTRODUCTION

    Background ….…………………………………………………………………………….1

    Evolution …………………………………………………………………………………..4 Other Tenor Saxophonists ………………………………………………………………....8

    Biographical Sketch of Stan Getz …………………………………………………………13

    The Recordings ……………………………………………………………………………19

    CHAPTER 1: HARMONY IN THE IMPROVISED SOLOS OF STAN GETZ 1950-1951

    Background …………………………………………………………………………....…..20 Enclosures...………………………………………………………………………………..20

    Bebop Scales ………………………………………………………………………………25

    Chromatic Approach Tones ……………………………………………………………….27

    Chromatic Neighbor Tones ………………………………………………………………..28 Leading Tone Diminished …………………………………………………………………29

    Harmonic Generalization/ Substitution ……………………………………………………30

    Tritone Substitution ………………………………………………………………………..31

    Side Slipping ………………………………………………………………………………33 Harmonic Superimposition ……………………………………………………………...…34

    “Lady Bird” Turnaround …………………………………………………………………..35

    “Honeysuckle Rose” Motive ………………………………………………………………36

    CHAPTER 2: MELODY IN THE IMPROVISED SOLOS OF STAN GETZ 1950-1951

    Background ……………………………………………………………………………..…39

    Melodic Structure ……………………………………………………………………… …39 Question - Answer …………………………………………………………………..…40

    Call and Response …………………………………………………………………..…41

    Tension and Release …………………………………………………………………...42 Step Melody ……………………………………………………………………………….43

    Melodic Sequence …………………………………………………………………………44

    Melodic Quotation ……………………………………………………………………...…45 Quotations of Charlie Parker’s Solos ……………………………………………………...49

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    CHAPTER 3: RHYTHM IN THE IMPROVISED SOLOS OF STAN GETZ 1950-1951

    Background ………………………………………………………………………………..52

    Swing Feel ……………………………………………………………………………...…52

    Hemiola, Over-The Barline, and Polyrhythmic Phrasing …………………………………54Rhythmic Instability ………………………………………………………………….……56

    Larger Scale Rhythmic Instability and Stability: Avoiding One …………………….……58

    CHAPTER 4: MACRO-LEVEL CONSTRUCTIVE ELEMENTS

    Motivic and Episodic …………………………………………………………………..….59

    CONCLUSIONS ……………………………………………………………………………....64

    DISCOGRAPHY 1943-1951 ………………………………………………………………….67

    REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………..87

    APPENDIX A: OUTLINE OF ELEMENTS SPECIFIC TO BEBOP ……………………….91

    APPENDIX B: “PENNIES FROM HEAVEN” WITH ANNOTATIONS ..…………………92

    APPENDIX C: COMPLETE SOLO TRANSCRIPTIONS

    MOSQUITO KNEES …………………………………………………………………...…95

    MOVE …………………………………………………………………………………..…99

    PARKER 51 ……………………………………………………………………………….103PENNIES FROM HEAVEN ……………………………………………………………...108 SIGNAL …………………………………………………………………………………...113

    SPLIT KICK ………………………………………………………………………………117

    WILDWOOD ……………………………………………………………………………...119

    YVETTE ………………………………………………………………………………..…122

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    LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES

    CHAPTER 1: HARMONY IN THE IMPROVISED SOLOS OF STAN GETZ 1950-1951

    Example 1.1 Enclosure from ! step above and below the major third in “Parker 51”…21 Example 1.2 Whole step above and ! below the root in “Mosquito Knees”…21

    Example 1.3 Whole step above and below the minor third in “Parker 51”…22

    Example 1.4 Enclosing the 9th in “Parker 51”…22

    Example 1.5a Larger interval enclosure in “Parker 51”…23

    Example 1.5b Elongated Enclosure…23 Example 1.6 Compound enclosure in “Yvette” with illustration …23

    Example 1.7 Compound enclosures in “Parker 51”…24

    Example 1.8 Table of sub-structural enclosure detail in example 1.7…24

    Example 1.9 Enclosures in a longer phrase from “Mosquito Knees” …24 Example 1.10 Bebop scale on a dominant seventh chord in “Parker 51”...25

    Example 1.11 Bebop scale on dominant and minor chords in “Move”…25 Example 1.12 Bebop Lick in “Wildwood” …26

    Example 1.13 Approach tone melodies initiated on the downbeats in “Signal”…27

    Example 1.14 Approach tone melodies resolving to downbeats in “Move”…28

    Example 1.15 Alternating between downbeats and upbeats in “Move”…28

    Example 1.16 Approach tone voice leading in “Pennies from Heaven” …28

    Example 1.17 Chromatic neighbor tones in “Wildwood”…29 Example 1.18 Leading tone diminished substitution in “Move” ms. 28-29…29

    Example 1.19 P51.14-15 Leading tone diminished in “Parker 51” ms 14-15 …30

    Example 1.20 !-Whole Diminished Harmonic Generalization in “Mosquito Knees” m. 106-110 …31

    Example 1.21 Tritone substitution in “Move” ms. 119-121 …32 Example 1.22 Tritone substitution in “Signal”…32