William Allan Kritsonis - APA Corrections/Revisions

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In 2008, Dr. Kritsonis was inducted into the William H. Parker Leadership Academy Hall of Honor, Graduate School, Prairie View A&M University The Texas A&M University System. He was nominated by doctoral and masters degree students. Dr. Kritsonis Lectures at the University of Oxford, Oxford, England In 2005, Dr. Kritsonis was an Invited Visiting Lecturer at the Oxford Round Table at Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England. His lecture was entitled the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning. Dr. Kritsonis Recognized as Distinguished Alumnus In 2004, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis was recognized as the Central Washington University Alumni Association Distinguished Alumnus for the College of Education and Professional Studies. Dr. Kritsonis was nominated by alumni, former students, friends, faculty, and staff. Final selection was made by the Alumni Association Board of Directors. Recipients are CWU graduates of 20 years or more and are recognized for achievement in their professional field and have made a positive contribution to society. For the second consecutive year, U.S. News and World Report placed Central Washington University among the top elite public institutions in the west. CWU was 12th on the list in the 2006 On-Line Education of Americas Best Colleges. Educational Background Dr. William Allan Kritsonis earned his BA in 1969 from Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington. In 1971, he earned his M.Ed. from Seattle Pacific University. In 1976, he earned his PhD from the University of Iowa. In 1981, he was a Visiting Scholar at Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, and in 1987 was a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California. Doctor of Humane Letters In June 2008, Dr. Kritsonis received the Doctor of Humane Letters, School of Graduate Studies from Southern Christian University. The ceremony was held at the Hilton Hotel in New Orleans, Louisiana.

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<ul><li> 1. Practical Applications ofEducational Research and Basic Statistics William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Prairie View A&amp;M University Lisa Horton, PhD Prairie View A&amp;M University 1 </li> <li> 2. Practical Applications of Educational Research and Basic Statistics William Allan Kritsonis, PhD &amp; Lisa Horton, PhDPublished by National FORUM Journals 17603 Bending Post Drive Houston, Texas 77095Copyright 2007/2008 by William Allan Kritsonis, PhDExcept as permitted under the United States Copyright Act Of 1976, no part of thisprofessional publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by anymeans, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the proper writtenpermission of Dr. William Kritsonis. Absolutely no unauthorized reproduction of thistext.ISBN: 0-9770013-4-2Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data$79.00 (United States)$89.00 (Canada)$99.00 (All others) Published in the United States of America 2 </li> <li> 3. Practical Applications of Educational Research and Basic Statistics Author William Allan Kritsonis PhD Program in Educational Leadership Prairie View A&amp;M University Member of the Texas A&amp;M University System Prairie View, Texas Lisa Horton PhD Program in Educational Leadership Prairie View A&amp;M University Member of the Texas A&amp;M University System Prairie View, Texas 3 </li> <li> 4. Dedication To all our students, past, present, and future. We wish to thank all the people who devotedly concerned themselves with our professional and personal development and improvement ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The purpose of the text is to provide content and knowledge in the area of research with students at both the masters and doctoral levels. A list of acknowledgements and credits is provided in the Partial Listing of Selected References and Acknowledgements at the end of this text.CONTENTS 4 </li> <li> 5. PagePART I: Practical Applications of Educational Research and Basic Statistics ....6Chapter 1: Development of Research .................................................................7Chapter 2: Historical Research .........................................................................14Chapter 3: Descriptive Research ......................................................................18Chapter 4: Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research ............................22Chapter 5: Qualitative Research .......................................................................30Chapter 6: Methods and Tools of Research ......................................................33Chapter 7: Descriptive Statistics and Normal Distribution ...............................39Chapter 8: Inferential Data Analysis ................................................................55Chapter 9: Parts of the Research Proposal .......................................................61Chapter 10: Parts of a Field Study ....................................................................67Chapter 11: General Statistics Information ......................................................73Chapter 12: Types of Statistical Data ...............................................................77 PageChapter 13: Descriptive Statistics ....................................................................81Chapter 14: Types of Distributions ..................................................................88 5 </li> <li> 6. Chapter 15: Formulas .......................................................................................90Chapter 16: Understanding and Using Statistics. The Basics ..........................92Chapter 17: Getting Started With Research: Avoiding the Pitfalls ...................96Chapter 18: Ethics and Research ......................................................................99Chapter 19: Ethics in Research on Human Subjects and the role of theInstitutional Review Board. Frequently Asked Questions .............................101Chapter 20: Working with the IRB Suggested Frameof Mind for Researchers .................................................................................104Chapter 21: Research, Writing &amp; Publication ...............................................106PART II: Fundamental Terms in Educational Researchand Basic Statistics .......................................................................................110Fundamental Terms in Educational Research and Basic Statistics .................111PART III: Partial Listing of Selected Referencesand Acknowledgements ...............................................................................144Partial Listing of Selected References and Acknowledgements .....................145PART IV: About the Authors .....................................................................154 6 </li> <li> 7. PART I:Practical Applications ofEducational Researchand Basic Statistics 7 </li> <li> 8. Chapter 1 Development of Research1. Key Points a. Observations b. Experience c. Intuition d. Hand me down e. Revelation f. Definition or Decree g. Philosophy or Logic h. Instinct2. Centuries ago, medicine men, religious authorities, and elders were knowledge sources? (No one questioned them.)3. With time, people began to observe orderliness and cause and effect relationships in the universe. Events were recorded and analyzed.4. Some things could be predicted. Events could be predicted in relation to the time of year and the seasons.5. This brought on a conflict. a. Religious authority versus curious thinkers b. Authority versus empirical evidence c. Elders versus personal experience6. People eventually began to think systematically. A few great thinkers led the way. 8 </li> <li> 9. 7. Aristotle (Ancient Greece) a. First approach to reasoning. b. Deductive Method - moving from general assumptions to specific Syllogism 1) Major Premise: All men are mortal. 2) Minor Premise: Socrates is a man. 3) Conclusion: Socrates is a mortal.8. Centuries later-Francis Bacon a. Direct observation of phenomena b. Arriving at conclusions or generalizations through evidence of many individual observations led to inductive reasoning.9. Combining the deductive and inductive methods of reasoning results in the emerging of the scientific method or scientific approach.10. In 1930, John Dewey detailed the scientific method or scientific approach as follows: a. Identify and define a problem b. Formulate a hypothesis c. Collect, organize, and analyze data d. Formulate conclusions e. Verify or reject hypothesis, modify hypothesis There are many ways to specifically approach the scientific method and there are numerous generalizations of scientific approaches. The deductive approach is hypothesizing and anticipating the consequences of events.11. Researchers go back and forth--inductive-deductive-inductive-deductive. An example would be to hypothesize-observe and collect data-reject hypothesis-reformulate new hypothesis-observe and collect more data- partially accept hypothesis-then collect more data. 9 </li> <li> 10. 12. Science 1) Definition: An approach to the gathering of knowledge, rather than a field of study. 2) Two Functions of Science i. Develop theory ii. Test hypotheses deduced from theory13. The Way a Scientist Works a. Empirical Approach - collect data b. Rational Approach - logical deductive reasoning14. Researcher attempts to develop theories and predict events in hopes of possibly controlling events. a. Piagets Theories - Cognitive development b. Behavior of gases - Air-conditioning, refrigeration c. Atomic Theory - Nuclear power d. Celestial Theory - Space travel, NASA, Satellites, and other technical advances.15. Two Types of Hypotheses a. Research Hypothesis (Alternative Hypothesis) (Symbol=Ha) 1) Affirmative statement that predicts a single outcome 2) Examples: i. Teaching Method A is better than Teaching Method B. ii. Cigarette smoking causes heart disease. iii. Extra curricular activities improve academic performance. iv. Computer Assisted Instruction improves academic achievement. v. Homework improves academic achievement. b. Null Hypothesis (Symbol=Ho) 1) This hypothesis is stated negatively so that the logic of statistical analysis can be applied. 10 </li> <li> 11. 2) The null hypothesis is saying the difference, if any, is due to chance. 3) Rejecting the null hypothesis with a probability statement would support the research hypothesis (Ha). 4) Examples: i. There is no difference in heart disease between smokers and nonsmokers. ii. There is no difference in academic achievement between Method A and Method B. iii. There is no difference in grades between CAI students and non-CAI students. iv. There is no difference in academic achievement due to participation in extra curricular activities.16. Sampling Definitions a. Population-----------------------parameter b. Sample---------------------------statistic c. Sample: a small proportion of a population selected for observation and analysis d. Statistic: a value from a sample used to infer the parameters of a population17. Types of Samples a. Simple Random Sample: every subject has an equal chance to be selected b. Systematic Sample: every nth number c. Stratified Random Sample: subdivide population and select sample proportionally-A random sample of each of the subgroups is done. d. Cluster Sample: most complex of all samples, used for very large groups; costly and take time. 50 states---------------------Randomly choose 20 states. 20 states---------------------Randomly choose 80 counties. 80 counties------------------Randomly choose 50 school districts. 50 districts------------------Randomly choose 10 teachers from each of the 50 school districts. Total Sample 500 teachers 11 </li> <li> 12. e. Non-probability Sample: (Use subjects available) f. Purposive Sample: participants are chosen not by chance but intentionally to yield data for evaluation purposes18. Sample Size (Test for Beta, or use a table.) a. The larger the sample, the less error. b. The larger the sample, the better the sample represents the population. c. In utilizing a survey, be certain to have a large sample. d. 32 (in a sample) is the magic number statistically, but e. Try to obtain more (with randomness)19. Purposes of Educational Research a. Fundamental or Basic: The purpose of this laboratory-type of research is solely to gain new knowledge. This research is often referred to as the search for knowledge for knowledges sake. b. Applied: The purpose is to improve a product (software, textbook, etc.) or process (teaching, learning, etc.)- testing a theoretical concept in a real actual problem situation. Most educational research is applied research. With the passing of time, basic research usually spurns further applied research. New knowledge gained eventually becomes useful and lends to advances in knowledge, which then directs more applied research to take place. c. Action: The purpose and focus are on immediate application-not on development of theory. The focus is on the here and now in a local setting.20. Two ways to Classify Research a. Quantitative Research: (Measuring) 1) Data are analyzed in terms of numbers. 2) Educational, medical, and agricultural professions use this type of classification. b. Qualitative Research: (Judging) 1) People and events are described without numerical data. This research consists of a rich, literal description in a prose form. 12 </li> <li> 13. 2) Interviews of people, students, and other sources are used to collect information. Research is written in prose form.21. Assessment: Fact-finding activity that describes existing conditions22. Evaluation: Fact-finding with judgment added23. Types of Educational Research a. Historical 1) A description of what was. 2) Application of the scientific method to the use of historical data to answer historical questions or to test historical hypotheses. b. Descriptive 1) A description of what is. 2) Application of the scientifi...</li></ul>