why light is right

Why Light is Right? January 2012 Nicolas Meilhan Principal Consultant, Frost & Sullivan January 2014

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Page 1: Why Light is Right

Why Light is Right?

January 2012 Nicolas Meilhan

Principal Consultant, Frost & Sullivan

January 2014

Page 2: Why Light is Right


5 major challenges must be taken into account to develop the car of the

future : CO2 emissions, end of fossil fuels, air & noise pollution but also

congestion and parking

2 global challenges

Climate changes End of cheap oil

3 local challenges

Pollution Congestion Parking

Page 3: Why Light is Right


Is the individual electric car really the ultimate transport mode in cities? Of the 3 major problems city faces – pollution, traffic and parking, the individual electric car

only addresses the pollution locally – noise & atmospheric

Space occupied in a city street to transport 60 persons

Page 4: Why Light is Right


Is the electric car the best solution to reduce CO2 emissions? Probably not....

Total CO2 emissions - ICE vs. Electric car, world-

Source: CEA http://www.theshiftproject.org/sites/default/files/files/conf_tsp_ve_david_cea_0.pdf

Page 5: Why Light is Right


Is there anything we could do if we really care about CO2? Reducing car size (and weight) could be an idea....

Total CO2 emissions - ICE vs. Electric car in France -

Source: CEA http://www.theshiftproject.org/sites/default/files/files/conf_tsp_ve_david_cea_0.pdf

Page 6: Why Light is Right


Weight and engine power of the average French car in the last 50 years 10 kg increase per year, 500 kg in 50 years!

Engine power multiplied by more than 2,5

Evolution of power, weight and price of a passenger car - 1953 to 2011, France -

Source : L’Argus


Average Weight

Price in month of

minimum salary

Page 7: Why Light is Right


What is the most energy efficient transport mode? Small frontal area per person, small weight per person, go slowly and steadily,

convert energy efficiently

Source : David MacKay

Amount of scrap metal displaced to

transport 1 person:

Renault Zoé – 1,4t – 1,4 person

1000 kg per person

Renault Twizy – 500 kg – 1 person

500 kg per person

Bus - 20t – 60 persons

330 kg per person

Scooter 125 – 150 kg – 1 person

150 kg per person

Electric bike – 20 kg – 1 person

20 kg per person

Bike - 10 kg – 1 person

10 kg par person

Page 8: Why Light is Right





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Reducing CO2 emissions is a good thing… … but it does not guarantee we will still be able to afford driving our cars in the short term

while oil supply is stagnating... and oil prices are surging!

Source: Manicore – Jean-Marc Jancovici

Liquid fuels production -1870-2100 -

• Future belongs to fuel efficient vehicles as well as low-cost cars (such as Logan)

• In Japan, 40% of passenger cars sold in 2012- 2 millions in total - were kei-cars – small cars

with length limited to 3,5 m and engine power limited to 660 cc

Reducing energy consumption is even better!

Page 9: Why Light is Right


Power to compensate mechanical losses

Power to compensate aerodynamic losses

What consumes energy when we drive? At lower speeds– in cities– mechanical losses, which are correlated to vehicle weight, have

the biggest impact on the energy consumption of vehicles

Power required to compensate mechanic & aerodynamic friction forces

Source : Gregory Launay - www.gnesg.com

Accelerations, which is increasing the speed of a given mass, is what requires

the most energy when driving in a urban environment




Page 10: Why Light is Right


How to reduce cars fuel consumption? 2 ways – increase the energy efficiency or reduce car weight

Fuel consumption of vehicles depends on the amount of energy required to move the vehicle

as well as the powertrain energy efficiency. To decrease the fuel consumption, one can either:

Reduce losses (increase the energy efficiency with an hybrid power train for example)

Reduce the amount of energy required (with a lighter car for example).

Source : Gregory Launay www.gnesg.com CO2 emissions




The red arrow represents the path that car markers have followed up to now which in most of

the time increased the energy consumption of the car although it reduced its CO2 emissions

An energy efficient approach would make a lot of sense in the future

Page 11: Why Light is Right


Peugeot BB1 Rex

Hybrid Air

1 L /100km – Impossible? Fuel consumption of a 600 kg electric car with a small range extender is as low as 1 L/100 km

Fuel consumption of a car vs. weight and energy efficiency -



t (k


Tank to wheel energy efficiency (%)

Source : Gregory Launay - www.gnesg.com

Page 12: Why Light is Right


An electric Peugeot BB1 fitted with a small range extender is probably the

urban car of the future with a fuel consumption as low as 1 L/100 km and a total

range of 300 km, in line with customer expectations

Technical Specification Peugeot BB1


Peugeot BB1

Rex EV

Weight 600 kg 565 kg

Engine Power & Torque 15 kW

320 N.m

Battery size 12 kWh 3 kWh

Battery weight 100 kg 25 kg *

Battery price € 4,800 € 1,200 **

Electric range 120 km 30 km

Electric consumption 10 kWh/100km

Total range 120 km 300 km

Range extender : type, size, power - 2 cylinders, 0.25 L

15 kW

Fuel tank (L) - 10 L

Range extender weight - 40 kg

Range extender price - 3,500 €

Price 14,800 € 14,700 €

* Battery weight= 8.5 kg/kWh ** Battery price = 400€/kWh

• 4 seats

• Length = 2,5 m

• Width = 1,6m

• Top speed– 90 km/h

• Range – 120 km

• 600 kg including 100 kg batteries

Peugeot BB1 (2009)

Page 13: Why Light is Right


How the car of the future looks like in an energy constrained world? 4 seats, a weight of 600 kg & an hybrid powertrain

Source : Matthieu BARREAU & Laurent BOUTIN , Réflexions sur l’énergétique des véhicules routiers

Specification of the car of the future

• 4 seats vehicle

• Weight of 600 kg (150 kg / person)

• Hybrid powertrain

Fuel consumption of 1,5 L/100 km at 90 km/h

Fuel consumption <1 L/100 km at 50 km/h in urban environment

Some examples to follow

Page 14: Why Light is Right


The Mathis Andreau 333 (1946) is a very good example of a light energy

efficient car that we should follow! 3 wheels, 3 persons, 385 kg, 3 meter 40, 3.5 Litres / 100 km, developed 2 x 33ans ago

Source : Matthieu BARREAU & Laurent BOUTIN , Réflexions sur l’énergétique des véhicules routiers

Page 15: Why Light is Right


Small is Beautiful & Light is Right!

Source : Matthieu BARREAU & Laurent BOUTIN , Réflexions sur l’énergétique des véhicules routiers