Who are the Palestinians, why are they frustrated and what do they want?

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A description of the Palestinian people, where they are today, and why they are unhappy

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<ul><li><p>Peter LarsonChairNational Education Committee on Israel/PalestineNational Council on Canada-Arab Relations (NCCAR)Who are the Palestinians?Why are they frustrated?And what do they want, anyway?</p></li><li><p>The spread of Judaism</p></li><li><p>Who are the Palestinians?Why are they so unhappy? and what do they want??? anyway?Peter LarsonChairNational Education Committee on Israel/Palestine</p></li><li><p>OutlineBackground why should we care?History where was Palestine?Demography who were the Palestinians? How many are there today?Geography - Where do they live today?Issues - What are their problems?Politics What do they want?Conclusions</p></li><li><p>Why should we care?</p></li><li><p>Geography where is (or was) Palestine?</p><p>Roman empire circa 50 a.d.</p></li><li><p>Map Room, Doges Palace, Venice. Map circa 1700 the eastern end of the Mediterranean is marked Palestine</p></li><li><p>Under the Ottomans - Palestine is an area </p></li><li><p>States and borders created by imperial powers after WWI</p></li><li><p>Encyclopedia Britannica, 1935Palestinian currency, 1930</p></li><li><p>In the famous movie Exodus, Paul Newman is leading a group of Jewish refugees to Palestine. It is set in 1947.</p></li><li><p>Where is Palestine today?..In 1948, after 2000 years, Palestine is no longer on the map</p></li><li><p>Who were the Palestinians?- Social structure Up to 1948, the area was mostly feudal/agrarian Olives, oranges, sheep, goats Lots of small villages, absentee landlords 20% lived in a dozen cities (Jerusalem, Jaffa, Haifa, Nablus) with educated urban populationPalestinian orange harvest, Jaffa, 1920</p></li><li><p>Who were the Palestinians?- religion Population of Palestine (1914)* </p><p> 657,000 Muslim 81,000 Christian 59,000 Jews_____________TOTAL 800,000 million* est. J. McCarthyPopulation 1931760,000 Muslim91,000 Christian174,610 Jews____________1,026,000* British Census, 1931 </p></li><li><p>Demography Who are the Palestinians? (ethnicity)</p></li><li><p>When Israel was created, where did the Palestinians go?</p></li><li><p>The Nakba (Nov 1947 August 1948)</p><p> 750,000 Palestinians fled for safety not allowed to return all their land was confiscated by Israel (without compensation) and held for the Jewish people They call this the Naqba (the disaster)</p></li><li><p>Where are the Palestinians today?</p><p>1. West Bank* 2.4 M2. Gaza*1.6 M3. Refugees in Lebanon, Jordan, Syria3.5 M4. Israel1.4 M5. Diaspora2. M </p><p>Total 10.9M</p><p>* - More than one million of the people now living in the WB and Gaza are refugees from what is now Israel.</p></li><li><p>Where are the Palestinians today?</p><p>1. West Bank* 2.4 M2. Gaza*1.6 M3. Refugees in Lebanon, Jordan, Syria3.5 M4. Israel1.4 M5. Diaspora2. M </p><p>Total 10.9M</p><p>* - More than one million of the people now living in the WB and Gaza are refugees from what is now Israel.</p></li><li><p>What are their problems?</p><p>Depends on where they live</p><p> West Bank Gaza Refugee camps Israel Diaspora</p></li><li><p> West Bank (2.4 million)</p><p> Under Israeli military occupation since 1967 human rights very restricted (Checkpoints, passes, etc.) Ever shrinking territory (e.g. Jordan Valley) New Jewish settlements Israeli control and distribution of water Jews under different laws</p><p>Map: The Economist</p></li><li><p>This is one of the Jewish settlement s in East Jerusalem</p></li><li><p> Gaza1.6 million</p><p> 2/3 are refugees from 1948 Gaza taken over by Israel in 1967 Israel withdrew in 2004 but still blockaded by land, sea and air economy blocked Elected Hamas government in 2006, but west refused to recognize stuck on 360 km2, (15% of Ottawa territory)</p></li><li><p>Refugees 4.7 million</p><p> 58 camps in Syria, Lebanon, Jordan (some in Gaza and WB) some not in camps condition varies from country to country</p><p>UNRWA definition: anyone whose normal place of residence was Palestine during the period 1 June 1946 to 15 May 1948 and who lost both home and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 conflict." </p></li><li><p> Israel 1.4 million</p><p> those who stayed in Israel in 1948 </p><p> citizens of Israel( Israeli Arabs) with some civil rights (e.g. right to vote)</p><p> own only 3.5% of land</p><p> live in dozens of small (poor) Arab towns</p><p> Face severe discrimination and poverty</p></li><li><p>93% of Israel is nowState land </p></li><li><p>Bedouin still struggling to keep their land</p></li><li><p> Diaspora 2 million??</p><p> many moved to Middle East, America and Europe</p><p> about 50,000 in Canada</p><p> many have never been to Palestine</p><p> main centers in Canada: Toronto, London, Montreal, Vancouver</p></li><li><p>What do they want?</p><p>Palestinians want their country back and a recognition that what was done to them was unfair.Which way forward?</p><p>a two state solution two equal states with secure borders</p><p>a one state solution a democratic secular state with equal rights for all </p><p>What no representative Palestinian body asks for!!:Kill the Jews, get rid of them, throw them into the sea, send them back to Europe, etc. etc.</p></li><li><p>How have they tried to fight for their rights?</p><p>UN resolution 194 (Dec. 1948) right of return</p><p>Gamal Nasser</p><p>PLO- Armed struggle</p><p>Passive resistance</p><p>Terrorism</p><p>Negotiations</p><p>Legal tools</p><p>Appeal to UN (2012)</p><p>BDS</p></li><li><p>Conclusion: Who are the Palestinians, why are they unhappy and what do they want?The Palestinians are an Arab people who have lived in an area called Palestine for the last 2000 years.</p><p>They are unhappy because they were chased off their land in 1948 and dont have the right to return. While some remain in Israel, most are now dispersed in Gaza, in the West Bank, and in many other countires. </p><p>They want the same thing as most of us a country, land, a house, economic opportunity for themselves and their kids.</p><p>For the last 64 years they have tried every possible method from direct negociations, to UN votes and even individual acts of terrorism. But so far, they have not been successful.</p></li><li><p>What are the main human rights issues Canadians should be concerned with?1 Freedom for Palestinians living under Israeli occupation.</p><p>2 Equality for Palestinians living inside the Jewish State of Israel</p><p>3 A fair solution for the refugees (repatriation, or resettlement and compensation)</p><p>4 Protecting the human rights of Jews living in Israel today</p></li><li><p>What can we do?</p></li><li><p>What can we do?Recognize this large, long-standing, man-made humanitarian crisis</p></li><li><p>What can we do?Recognize this large, long-standing, man-made humanitarian crisisDare to break the taboo</p></li><li><p>What can we do?Recognize this large, unresolved, man-made humanitarian crisisDare to break the tabooLearn more Encourage our government (and opposition parties) to promote a fair solution based on Canadian values of human rights for all</p></li><li><p>Who are the Palestinians?Why are they so angry? and what do they want, anyway??Thank You!</p><p>Peter LarsonChairNational Education Committee on Israel/Palestinepeter.larson@nccar.ca</p></li><li><p>7 Frequently asked questions</p><p>Why dont the Arab countries do more?Why dont the Palestinians just suck it up?Isnt Israel a democracy? (At least its better than its neighbours, isnt it??)Why do you focus on Israel when there are so many other problems in the world?Why is the Harper government so pro-Israel?The Arabs and Jews have hated each other forever. Will it ever end?OK I agree its unfair. But Im not an activist. What can I do?</p></li><li><p>If you want to know more.</p><p>Give me your email address, I will send you some ideas for books/articles/films you might find interesting.Sign up for my biweekly email Think about coming with me to see for yourself.</p><p>Thanks.Peter Larson, peter.larson@sympatico.ca</p><p>We hear a lot about the Israel/Palestine conflictBut dont really know much about who the palestinians are, or what they wantWe have an image of the palestinian terrorist but whats behind the image?This info is based on 3 trips to the region, whre I have talked to dozens of Palestinians and israelis about this complicated issue*Actually, Palestinians are a lot like us. They are quite varied.Here are a few of them.The first pic is one of Shawki Abu Ghazaleh, the President of the Rotary Club of Ramallah exchanging flags with some Canadian rotary club membersBelow them are 3 girls who are university students in Jenin, in the West Bank. They are talking to a Canadian woman who was returning to Palestine after 40 years. She was born in Haifa, Palestine, and now returns to Haifa, Israel.The kids like any kids are hamming to get their pics taken. They are in Israel. They speak Arabic, they are muslim, they are Palestinian, but they are citizens of Israel.The man on the top right is Izzeldin Abuelaish a doctor. You may have heard of him. He is the man who lost his 3 daughters to Israeli missiles during the attack on Gaza in 2009. He now lives in Canada.**Why should we care about the Israel/palestine conflict?We should care about suffering anywhereThis conflict is one of the longest lasting since 1948It is a contributing factor to Muslim terrorism - 911, long line ups at the airport, even our soldiers being killed in Afghanistan is at least partly linked. Canada has taken a very high profile on one side of this issue. Most recently, it has led to Canadas almost total isolation at the United Nations*Since Roman times, the area between the Mediterranean Ocean and the Jordan River has been known as PalestineThe Crusaders went to PalestineThe Ottomans ruled over Palestine for 400 yearsThe British took over the Palestinian mandate in 1921But in 1948, Palestine became israelHebrews, Philistines, Canaanites, For over 400 years, the Venetian empire traded with all of the mediterranean. In the Doges Palace there is a map room, with many maps of the area. On the huge wall map, which dates from around 1700, the eastern end of the Mediterranean is marked Palestina**The Area between the mediterranean and the Jordan River was also known as Palestine under the British Mandate. Here is a map from the 1935 version of the Encyclopedia Britannica. Also currency issued by the Palestinian Currency board in 1930.**After 2000 years of being known as Palestine that stopped in 1948 with the creation of the State of Israel.</p><p>As of November 29th, 2012, a State of Palestine has been recognized by the UN. But its borders are still not defined.So what do we know about who the Palestinians wereFrom about 1500 to 1921, Palestine and the Palestinians were under the Ottoman empireThe Palestinian area was mostly feudal. A few large land owners (some of them living outside the area in lebanon or Egypt or Syria), and many many small villages.The economy was based on agriculture olives, oranges, sheep, goats, etc.Some of the oranges were for export. In 1880 more than 1,000,000 oranges left the port of Jaffa for EuropeThere were also a dozen or so cities the largest of which were Jaffa and Jerusalem. The latter was the political/religoius capital of the area.**There have been Jews, Muslims and Christians living in Palestine for centuries.The Jews tended to be concentrated in the cities especially Jerusalem,In 1867 an American Missionary reported an estimated population of Jerusalem of about 15,000, of whom 6,000 were Muslims, 5,000 Jews and about 2000 Christians. All were Palestinians. All spoke Arabic.At the time, of the British Census of 1931, Jews comprised about 20% of the population. </p><p>In 1914 Palestine had a population of 657,000 Muslim Arabs, 81,000 Christian Arabs, and 59,000 Jews.http://lostislamichistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/mandate.jpgEstimated by US demographer Justin McCarthy</p><p>British Census 1931759,717 Muslims, 174,610 Jews, 91,398 Christians,</p><p>There is considerable ethnic diversity amongst the Palestinians.Over the last 4000 years, the region has fallen under successive empires:Alexander the Great, Rome, Persia, The Crusaders, The Mongols, the Egyptians, the Ottomans, etc.All have left their genetic traces.**The Jewish/Israeli takeover of Palestine was not like the German invasion of France, or the Allied conquest of Germany. In those cases, the conquering power left the local populations in place.</p><p>An estimated 750,000 Palestinians fled from their homeland. Despite repeated UN resolutions, Israel has never let them return.</p><p>*As I said, during the fighting when Israel was created, about 85% of the Palestinian population fled and became refugees. The new State of Israel has never allowed them to return.</p><p>So where are the Palestinians today? Estimates vary. Israeli sources tend to lowball, the Palestinian sources tend to do the opposite. According to Wikipedia there are between 11 and 20 million Palestinians in the world today. I have used the lower number of 11 million. I do not try to defend these numbers exactly. But they are pretty good approximations.</p><p>About 2.4 million live in the West Bank. On my first trip to the region I spent most of my time here in Bethlehem, Hebron, Jericho, the Jordan Valley and East Jerusalem. This is where the fight is over the wall, the settlements, the house demolitions and so on that are so much in the news.Another 1.6 million live in Gaza. I have never been there, but we do hear quite a bit about the difficult conditions for people in Gaza, especially after the Israeli attack on Gaza in 2009.According to the UN, there are 4.7 million refugees. Of these about 1.2 million live in refugee camps in Gaza and the West bank, but the rest, about 3.5 million live in Lebanon, Jordan and Syria). About 1.4 million Palestinians live inside IsraelFinally, there are approximately 2 million Palestinians in the diaspora. This number is the least clear. (e.g. Should a Palestinian who has lived in Canada for 20 years be counted or not??. Should a Palestinian who was in a refugee camp in Jordan, but who became a Jordanian citizen, be included, or not??) . I have taken the smallest number used by any independent sources.)*As I said, during the fighting when Israel was created, about 85% of the Palestinian population fled and became refugees. The new State of Israel has never allowed them to return.</p><p>So where are the Palestinians today? Estimates vary. Israeli sources tend to lowball, the Palestinian sources tend to do the opposite. According to Wikipedia there are between 11 and 20 million Palestinians in the world today. I have used the lower number of 11 million. I do not try to defend these numbers exactly. But they are pretty good approximations.</p><p>About 2.4 million live in the West Bank. On my first trip to the region I spent most of my time here in Bethlehem, Hebron, Jericho, the Jordan Valley and East Jerusalem. This is where the fight is over the wall, the settlements, the house demolitions and so on that are so much in the news.Another 1.6 million live in Gaza. I have never been there, but we do hear quite a bit about the difficult conditions for people in Gaza, especially after the Israeli attack on Gaza in 2009.According to the UN, there are 4.7 million refugees. Of these about 1.2 million live in refugee camps in Gaza and the West bank, but the rest, about 3.5 million live in Lebanon, Jordan and Syria). About 1.4 million Palestinians live inside IsraelFinally, there are approximately 2 million Palestinians in the diaspora. This number is the least clear. (e.g. Should a Palestinian who has lived in Canada for 20 years be counted or not??. Should a Palestinian who was in a refugee camp in Jordan, but who became a Jordanian citizen, be included, or not??) . I have taken the smallest number used by any independ...</p></li></ul>