who are english language learners? 1 are english language learners? 1 ... and excellence report 152...

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  • TWO

    ONE

    Contents

    Who Are English Language Learners? 1

    Key Terms 1Guiding Questions 1

    Defining and Identifying English Language Learners 3Labeling English Language Learners 4Historical and Current Demographic Trends 6Diversity of English Language Learners 8

    Home Languages 8Levels of English Language Proficiency 12Socioeconomic Status 13Educational Achievement 13Special Education Considerations 15Other Factors 16

    Cultural Adjustment Issues 19Promoting Bilingualism on the Individual and Societal Levels 21Learning More about Your English Language Learners 23

    Summary 24Discussion Questions 25Research Activities 25Recommended Reading 26

    Language 27

    Key Terms 27Guiding Questions 27

    What Is Language? 28Why Teachers Need to Know about Language 28Language Standards for All Students 29What Teachers Need to Know about Language 31

    Phonology 31Morphology 32Syntax 33Semantics 33Pragmatics 34Lexicon 35Spelling 35

    What Does It Mean to Know a Language? 36Communicative Competence 36Register and Genre 37

    xii

    Caslon, Inc. For authorized use only. All rights reserved.

    Caslon, Inc. For authorized use only. All rights reserved.

  • Contents xiii

    THREE

    Social Practice and Discourse 37Language Variation 38Bilingualism and Translanguaging 39

    Language for Academic Purposes 40Language for Academic Success in Language Arts, Mathematics, Science,

    and Social Studies 41Academic and Language Demands 43

    Summary 45Discussion Questions 46Research Activities 46Recommended Reading 47

    Language Learning and Teaching 48

    Key Terms 48Guiding Questions 48

    First Language Acquisition Theories 49Second Language Acquisition Theories 49Cognitive Approaches to Second Language Acquisition 49

    Interaction Hypothesis 53Comprehensible Output Hypothesis 53Noticing Hypothesis 54Processability Theory 54Input Processing Model 54Transfer from First Language to Second Language 55

    Sociocultural Perspectives on Language Learning and Teaching 55

    Sociolinguistic Contributions 56Zone of Proximal Development and Scaffolding 56Language Socialization Research 58Bilingual and Multilingual Pluralist Perspectives 58

    All Teachers Are Language Teachers 60Traditional Second Language Teaching Approaches and

    Methods 60Grammar-Translation Method 60Audiolingual Method 61Natural Approach 61Communicative Language Teaching 61Content-Based Instruction 62Whole Language, Multiple Intelligences, and Cooperative Learning 63Critical Pedagogy 63Beyond Approaches and Methods 64

    Summary 65Discussion Questions 65Research Activities 65Recommended Reading 66

    Caslon, Inc. For authorized use only. All rights reserved.

    Caslon, Inc. For authorized use only. All rights reserved.

  • xiv Contents

    FIVE

    FOURLanguage and Education Policy for English Language Learners 67

    Key Terms 67Guiding Questions 67

    Historical Perspective 68Evolution of Federal Policy for English Language Learners 72

    Title VII Bilingual Education Act (19682002) 72No Child Left Behind 73Obama Administration and Federal Education Policy 76

    State-Led Initiatives and Consortia 78Common Core State Standards Initiative 79Common Core State Standards Assessment Consortia 81English Language Proficiency Assessment Consortia 81

    State Policies for English Language Learners 82Important Court Decisions and Legislation 84Language Policy at the Local Level 85

    Summary 86Discussion Questions 87Research Activities 88Recommended Reading 88

    Program Models for English Language Learners 89

    Key Terms 89Guiding Questions 89

    Essential Components of Instructional Programs for English Language Learners 90

    English as a Second Language 90Content-Area Instruction 91Primary Language Support 93English as a Second Language and Sheltered Instruction 94English as a Second Language and English Language Arts 95

    Instructional Programs for English Language Learners 96Bilingual Models 96English-Medium Models 106

    Collaboration among English as a Second Language, Bilingual, Sheltered Instruction, and Mainstream Teachers 113

    Bakers Typology of Program Models for English Language Learners 113Determining the Most Appropriate English Language Learner

    Program Models for Your School 115Monoglossic and Heteroglossic Bilingual Programs 115

    Summary 116Discussion Questions 117Research Activities 117Recommended Reading 118

    Caslon, Inc. For authorized use only. All rights reserved.

    Caslon, Inc. For authorized use only. All rights reserved.

  • Contents xv

    SEVEN

    SIXAssessment 119Key Terms 119Guiding Questions 119

    Assessment Basics 120Summative and Formative Assessments 121Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests 121Reliability 122Validity 124Bias 125

    Critical Look at Testing Requirements for English Language Learners 127

    Joint Standards 128Content-Area Testing 128Language Proficiency Testing 132Consequential Validity 135Common Core State Standards Assessments 137

    Alternative Authentic Assessments for English Language Learners 139Observations 139Performance Assessment 140Self-Assessment and Peer Assessment 141Portfolio Assessment 143

    Need for Multiple Measures 144Promise of Value-Added Measurement and Potential for Abuse 145

    Accuracy Myth 146Single Teacher Myth 146Random Assignment Myth 146Curriculum Control Myth 147Similar Test Myth 147

    Summary 148Discussion Questions 148Research Activities 149Recommended Reading 149

    Listening and Speaking 150

    Key Terms 150Guiding Questions 150

    What We Know from Research about Oral Language and English Language Learners 151

    Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence Report 152National Literacy Panel Report 153

    Using Theory to Guide Decision Making 155Silent Period and Wait Time 155Teacher Talk in the Classroom 156Correcting Student Speech Errors 157

    Caslon, Inc. For authorized use only. All rights reserved.

    Caslon, Inc. For authorized use only. All rights reserved.

  • xvi Contents

    EIGHT

    Productive Talk Moves 158Vocabulary Development 160

    Using Standards to Focus Instruction 161Common Core State Standards for Speaking and Listening 162WIDA Standards for Listening and Speaking 163

    Promoting Oral Language Development in the Classroom 165Listening 165Speaking 168Strategies for Classroom Interaction 170

    Assessing Listening and Speaking 175

    Summary 180Discussion Questions 180Research Activities 181Recommended Reading 181

    Reading 182

    Key Terms 182Guiding Questions 182

    Balanced Approach to Literacy Instruction 183How Reading Promotes Second Language Development 185What We Know from Research about Reading Instruction

    for English Language Learners 185Common Core State Standards for Reading 188

    Major Shifts for English Language Arts and Literacy in the Common Core State Standards 189

    Text Complexity 190Promoting Reading Development for English Language Learners

    in the Classroom 191Vocabulary Development through Reading 192Identifying English Language Learners Reading Levels 194Selecting Texts 196Structuring Activities 197Reading to, with, and by English Language Learners 197Readers Workshop 206Postreading Activities 207Strategies for Reading across the Curriculum 209Reading Digital Texts 211

    Assessing Reading 212Concepts of Print Checklists 212Running Records 213Reading Self-Assessments 218

    Summary 218Discussion Questions 219Research Activities 220Recommended Reading 220

    Caslon, Inc. For authorized use only. All rights reserved.

    Caslon, Inc. For authorized use only. All rights reserved.

  • Contents xvii

    TEN

    NINEWriting 222Key Terms 222Guiding Questions 222

    What We Know from Research on Writing Instruction for English Language Learners 223

    Theoretical Frameworks for Writing Research and Instruction 226Relationship between Reading and Writing 226Stages in English Language Learner Writing Development 229Common Core State Standards for Writing 229Promoting Writing Development for English Language Learners

    in the Classroom 232Identifying English Language Learners Writing Levels 232Writing to, with, and by English Language Learners 233

    Writing across the Curriculum 247Writing with Technology 248

    Word Processing 249Online Message Boards 249Key Pals (E-mail and Instant Messaging) 250Multimedia Presentations 250Blogs, Tweets, and Wikis 251Digital Storytelling 251Txtng Language Use 252

    Home-School Writing Connection 253Assessing Writing 254

    Standardized High-Stakes Writing Exams 254Classroom-Based Writing Assessment 255

    Summary 260Discussion Questions 261Research Activities 261Recommended Reading 262

    Content-Area Instruction for English Language Learners 263

    Key Terms 263Guiding Questions 263

    Principled Approach to Teaching Content to English Language Leaners 264Differentiated Instruction for English Language Learners in Content Classes 264Language and Content-Area Objectives 265WIDA English Language Development Standards for the Content Areas 266Strategies for Modifying Textbooks and Instructional Materials 266Thematic Teaching and Lesson Planning 267Use of Literature across the Content Areas 268Multicultural Perspectives 270

    Caslon, Inc. For authorized use only. All rights reserved.

    Caslon, Inc. For authorized use only. All rights reserved.

  • xviii Contents

    ELEVEN

    Sheltered Instruction in the Content Areas 270Mathematics 270Science 275Social Studies 284Art, Music, and Physical Education 290

    Assessing the Content Areas 291

    Summary 292Discussion Questions 293Research Activities 293Recommended Reading 294

    Primary Language Support,

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