“where are they? who are they?”

Download “Where Are They? Who Are They?”

Post on 09-Mar-2017




4 download

Embed Size (px)


  • This article was downloaded by: [UQ Library]On: 03 November 2014, At: 00:24Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

    Australian Historical StudiesPublication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rahs20

    Where Are They? Who Are They?Suellen MurrayPublished online: 28 May 2008.

    To cite this article: Suellen Murray (2008) Where Are They? Who Are They?, Australian HistoricalStudies, 39:2, 229-244, DOI: 10.1080/10314610802033197

    To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10314610802033197


    Taylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (theContent) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis,our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as tothe accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinionsand views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors,and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Contentshould not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sourcesof information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims,proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoeveror howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to orarising out of the use of the Content.

    This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Anysubstantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing,systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions


  • Where Are They? Who Are They?

    Reuniting With Family of Origin After Leaving Care


    During the mid-twentieth century some Australian children spent as many as eighteen

    years in orphanages and other forms of institutional care. Who, then, were the families

    they left and what contact did they continue to have with them in the orphanage? How do

    they make sense of these experiences and how do they think it has affected their

    relationships with both the family members they already knew and others they only came

    to know over the course of their life? In answering these questions I draw on oral history

    accounts of people aged in their forties to their seventies who grew up in Catholic

    orphanages and childrens homes in Victoria and left care during the period 1945 to 1983.

    I ASKED THEM IN [THE ORPHANAGE] when I was about eight, Where are they? Who are

    they? I still remember as a little kid, and they told me their names and where they were

    living, so I focussed on St Kilda . . . and I prayed that I could see her . . . And [after I left

    care] I remember looking them up, and ringing quite a few numbers . . . but I never

    thought of my brother in Fern Tree Gully because he didnt know I existed. They just said

    youve got a brother and hes ten years older.1

    Having gone into care as a baby in the late 1940s, Margaret never knew her

    mother. When she left the home at sixteen she searched for people who shared

    her surname, hoping to trace her mother. By the time she found out about her

    in 1982, as a result of accessing her institutional records, her mother had died. In

    this search Margaret found an older brother whom she had not known. The

    reunion with her brother was highly anticipated and she travelled interstate to

    meet him. However, it is not an easy relationship and Margaret is disappointed.

    Like Margaret, John also came into care as a baby in the late 1940s and had

    no contact with any family members. In contrast to Margaret, he was not

    interested in searching for the family he never knew. As a young man he

    attempted to enlist in the Army and sought a copy of his birth certificate, which

    told him his mothers name. Many years later, aged in his fifties, he was contacted

    by a younger half-brother and half-sister. They told him that they did not know

    his father and that his mother, who had since died, had kept a lot of secrets in her

    closet. While they expressed interest in maintaining contact with him, Johns

    view was that he was too old and too independent and has had no further

    involvement with them.2

    1 To protect privacy, names of the research participants have been changed and pseudonyms used.Margaret, interviewed by Suellen Murray, 20 November 2006. Future references to Margaretsaccount of care and the aftermath are drawn from this interview.

    2 John, interviewed by Suellen Murray, 18 July 2006.

    ISSN 1031-461X print/ISSN 1940-5049 online # 2008 Taylor & FrancisDOI: 10.1080/10314610802033197


    Australian Historical Studies, Month 2008; 39(0): 229244 :




    by [




    ] at


    24 0

    3 N




  • Here are two very different responses to reunion with family of origin. As

    these responses suggest, the process of (re)uniting with family of origin is rarely

    straightforward. As Audrey Marshall and Margaret McDonald have said about

    adoptee reunions*they are often complex.3 But while some, like Margaretand John, were placed in care as babies and did not know their family of origin,

    others were placed in care from situations of in-home care with known family

    members. Depending on their circumstances, they may have then lost touch

    with some or all of these family members or have been discouraged from having

    contact with them. Some were in care with siblings, but may have had only

    limited contact with each other.

    In Australia there is an emerging interest in the effects of childhood institutio-

    nalisation and in the need for people who grew up in institutional care to reconstruct

    their life story. Peoples experiences of care and its impact on their subsequent lives

    and sense of identity have been vividly documented in the Australian Parliaments

    Senate Community Affairs References Committee report into children in institu-

    tional care, Forgotten Australians: A Report on Australians Who Experienced Institutional or

    Out-of-Home Care as Children.4 This report was the third of the trilogy of Australian

    inquiries concerned with the institutionalisation of Australian children, the

    preceding two having examined the experiences of Indigenous children and child

    migrants.5 Australian autobiographical accounts have also revealed the nature of

    childhood institutionalisationand its consequences.6 Eachof theseaccountspoints to

    the importance of people who grew up in institutional care being able to build a life

    history in order to make sense of their childhood experiences. As noted in Forgotten

    Australians, the loss of identity and connection with family is one of the most

    traumatic and distressing outcomes from a life lived in institutional care.7 The

    identification of family of origin is considered central to this process of identity

    construction and often part of this process is to trace and meet family members.8

    3 Audrey Marshall and Margaret McDonald, The Many-Sided Triangle: Adoption in Australia(Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 2001), 245.

    4 Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Forgotten Australians: A Report on Australians WhoExperienced Institutional or Out-of-Home Care as Children (Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia,2004).

    5 Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, Bringing Them Home: The Report of the NationalInquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families (Sydney:Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, 1997); Senate Community Affairs ReferencesCommittee, Lost Innocents: Righting the Record, Report on Child Migration (Canberra: Commonwealthof Australia, 2001).

    6 Frank Golding, An Orphans Escape: Memories of a Lost Childhood (Melbourne: Lothian, 2005); DavidHill, The Forgotten Children (Melbourne: Random House, 2007); Joanna Penglase, Orphans of theLiving: Growing Up in Care in Twentieth-century Australia (Perth: Fremantle Arts Centre Press, 2005);Richard Szablicki, Orphanage Boy: Through the Eyes of Innocence (Sydney: New Holland, 2007).

    7 Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Forgotten Australians, 253.8 Jim Goddard, Julia Feast and Derek Kirton, A Childhood on Paper: Accessing Care Records Under

    the Data Protection Act 1998, Adoption and Fostering 29, no. 3 (2003): 8284; Christine Horrocksand Jim Goddard, Adults Who Grew Up in Care: Constructing the Self and Accessing Care Files,Child and Family Social Work 11, (2006): 26472; Gillian Pugh, Unlocking the Past: The Impact of Accessto Barnardos Childcare Records (Aldershot: Gower, 1999); Karen Winter and Olivia Cohen, IdentityIssues For Looked After Children With No Knowledge of Their Origins, Adoption and Fostering 29,no. 2 (2005): 4452.

    230 Australian Historical Studies, 39, 2008




    by [




    ] at


    24 0