Where are the elements How did they form? Earth Water Air Living Things

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p> Slide 2 Where are the elements How did they form? Slide 3 Earth Water Air Living Things Slide 4 Slide 5 Earth Water Air Radioactive decay of Radium. Radioactive decay of Uranium and Radon N 2 &amp; O 2 Living Things SiO 2 Al 2 O 3 Fe 2 O 3 H2OH2O Slide 6 Living Things Slide 7 All alkali (Group 1A) compounds are soluble. Sodium &amp; Potassium Slide 8 All halogen compounds are soluble except those containing Ag +, Hg 2+, or Pb +2 ) Slide 9 All nitrates (NO 3 -), chlorates (ClO 3 - ) and perchlorates (ClO 4 - ) are soluble. Most sulfates (SO 4 2- ) are soluble. Calcium sulfate is slightly soluble. Slide 10 Slide 11 Slide 12 Slide 13 All carbonates (CO 3 -2 ), phosphates (PO 4 +3 ), sulfides(S -2 ) are insoluble. Slide 14 LIMESTONE (Calcium Carbonate (CaCO 3 ) Slide 15 Nearly all metal oxides are insoluble. Slide 16 Slide 17 Slide 18 Abundance inppb by wt%Logppb by atoms% Universe10,000,00017800,000.08 Earths crust460,000,000468.7600,000,00060 Sea water857,000,000868.9331,000,00033 Human610,000,000618.8240,000,00024 10,000,000 1,000,000,000 10 7 1 100 10 7 X Slide 19 Slide 20 Slide 21 $10 $100 $1000 $1 10 3 10 2 10 1 10 0 $.10 10 -1 10 -2 $.01 3- 2- 1- 0- -1- -2- -3- $10 $100 $1000 $1 $.10 $.01 $1000 Slide 22 Slide 23 Slide 24 Abundance inppb by wt%Logppb by atoms% Universe750,000,000758.88930,000,00093 Earths crust1,500,0000.156.18310,000,00031 Sea water107,800,000118.03662,000,00066 Human100,000,000108.00620,000,00062 Slide 25 Slide 26 Do the abundance of the elements change? In other words, do elements change into other elements? Slide 27 Slide 28 Geiger Counter Slide 29 Are elements formed in the caldron of a volcano? Are elements changed to other elements in the intense heat of a volcano (about 1,000 o C for lava and 2,000 o C for inside volcano)? Slide 30 Elements may separate from other elements or combine with certain elements. There is not enough heat in a volcano to change an element into another element. Here is silicon and oxygen with trace amount of metals (darkening) to form a mineral called Slide 31 about 7,000 o C 57million psi Slide 32 Slide 33 Slide 34 Slide 35 Slide 36 Slide 37 Slide 38 Slide 39 Slide 40 SUNEARTH Mass (Earths) 332,000 1 Volume (Earths) 1,300,000 1 Diameter 870,000 miles 8,000 miles Mass conversion rate (10 6 kg/s) Central temperature: 16 million deg K 7,000 est. Central density: 162 g/cm 3 12g/cm 3 Slide 41 Slide 42 Slide 43 Slide 44 Slide 45 Slide 46 56 Fe 13 4 He +4n 26n 13 4 He 26e - + 26p + + 26n +4n Slide 47 The core with a mass of million Earths shrinks from 1000 km (600 mi.) to about 50 km (31 mi.) in 1 second. Implosion velocity reaches 170 million mph...about 1/4 c or 50,000 miles per second. Slide 48 Slide 49 Slide 50 The outward moving matter is moving so fast that it compresses and heats whatever it collides with to temperatures of 10 10 to 10 11 K... much hotter than anything we have encountered in our studies of stars so far. Slide 51 Slide 52 Slide 53 Such enormously high temperatures generates nuclear reactions. Below the neon shell source, the oxygen and silicon is converted to iron plus less massive nuclei such as argon, calcium, potassium, titanium, copper, and zinc. By the time the blast reaches the outer shell sources, the collisions are less violent and the temperatures reached are too low for nuclear reactions. Slide 54 Thus, nuclear reactions account only for elements less massive than iron. What about the rest of the periodical table? Where do the other elements with more than 25 or so protons in their nuclei come from? The source of neutrons for neutron capture is the outer half of the collapsing neutron core that was ejected. The environment for neutron capture only last a short time. Consequently, not many of the heavy elements are created. Slide 55 Slide 56 Slide 57 Supernovas often become black holes. The remaining core of neutrons with about the weight of 3 to 15 of our suns has gravity so strong that light cannot exit. There is one black hole in our galaxy that has the mass of 2.6 million Suns. Slide 58 Slide 59 Explosion cloud (Remnant) of the Supernova Cassiopeia A in our Milky Way. The Remnant has a diameter of about 15 light- years. Slide 60 Slide 61 Where did hydrogen come from? It all depends on how good your math is. Test: How far do you travel in 2 hours, if you are going 120 mph? If you left home at noon and traveled 60 mph, how long would it take you to drive 300 miles? Slide 62 2:30 pm 1:30pm 12:30pm 120 mph 1:00pm 1:30pm 170 mph 120 mi 170 mi 85 mi 60 mi Noon Slide 63 Train Plane Doppler effect Slide 64 Slide 65 Slide 66 Slide 67 Slide 68 Slide 69 Slide 70 Slide 71 Slide 72 Slide 73 Slide 74 Slide 75 Slide 76 Slide 77 3,000 deg radiation Slide 78 The outward moving matter is moving so fast that it compresses and heats whatever it collides with to temperatures of 10 10 to 10 11 K... much hotter than anything we have encountered in our studies of stars so far. Slide 79 Slide 80 More light elements fused as neutrons compresses layers that reach temperatures up to 100 billion degrees. Heavy elements form as nuclei absorb neutrons. Fused for Nuclear Fuel Main ProductsTemperature Hydrogen (H) 4 He4 million K Helium ( 4 He) 12 C150 million K Carbon ( 12 C) 16 O, 20 Ne, 24 Mg1 billion K Neon ( 20 Ne) 24 Mg2 billion K Oxygen ( 16 O) 28 Si, 32 S3 billion K Silicon( 28 Si) 56 Fe, 56 Ni4 billion K </p>