what is computer hardware? computer hardware are the physical components of the computer
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What is computer hardware?
What is computer hardware?Computer hardware are the physical components of the computer.Input/Output DevicesInput/Output devices provide communication between user and hardware.Input DevicesKeyboardMouseScannerOutput DevicesMonitorSpeakersPrinterProcessors and MemoryCentral Processing Unit (CPU)Performs basic functions, millions and billions of times per second (brains of the computer)Random-Access Memory Stores data used by the CPU (before and after processing)Data StorageData storage uses a variety of media. Capacity is measured in bits and bytes:A bit represents the on or off state of a transistor (symbolized by a 1 or a 0).A byte is eight bits.A kilobyte is 210 or 1,024 bytes.A megabyte is 1,048,576 bytes.Hard DrivesThe hard drive is the primary storage device in a computer. Hard drives are:Long term, rewritable storageLarge capacityInexpensiveFixed media (relatively difficult to move from one computer to another)Removable MediaSome storage devices are more portable:CD/DVDMedium capacityInexpensiveEasy to transport from one computer to anotherFlash, Zip, USB drivesDiffering capacitiesDiffering price per MBComputer SoftwareSoftware can be divided into two categories:Systems software includes operating systems, compilers, and utilities.Application software runs on top of an operating system.What is an operating system?An operating system (OS) manages the hardware and software on a computer system. An OS:Manages memory and hardware resourcesAllocates resources to applicationsProvides a consistent interface for applicationsOperating SystemsUNIX/LinuxMultiuser OSMultitaskingRuns on many types of hardwareModular toolsMac OSFirst mainstream graphical user interfaceIcons (pictures) and mouse replaced command line interfaceDOS/WindowsDOS gained popularity with first PCsWindows provided graphical interface to DOSWindows later separated itself from DOS underpinnings
Low-Level LanguagesLow-level programming languages use simple commands to communicate with the CPU:Machine language (most basic language of the CPU)Assembly language (human readable, but close to machine language)High-Level LanguagesHigh-level languages can be procedural or object-oriented:Procedural languages use a step-by-step process to solve a problem.Basic, Pascal, CObject-oriented languages model problems using objects that correspond to real-world counterparts.Smalltalk, C++, Java