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  • Slide 1
  • Slide 2
  • What is colonial rule? Superpower Geographies
  • Slide 3
  • Superpower Geographies 1. Superpower Geographies a) defining superpowers b) influencing power b) changing patterns of power c) theories explaining the growth of superpowers Learning Objectives: To know the difference between British imperialism and colonisation To explain the concept of colonial rule using a specific example Know basic reasons for the collapse of the British Empire Geography Department, London Academy
  • Slide 4
  • Imperialism a relationship of political, economic or cultural control between geographical areas Colonialism the political rule of a nation by another Colonization the physical settling of people from a colonial power within their colony. Which of these represents imperialism, colonialism or colonisation? The political control of Burma by Britain. The introduction of Christianity in countries. English people moving to live and work in India.
  • Slide 5
  • The sun never sets on the British Empire What does this famous quote actually mean?
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  • TASK: 1) Give your map the title The British Empire in 1919 2) Using an atlas, shade the British colonies below onto your map. Use only one colour. GUINEA (West Africa) CANADA INDIA MYANMAR (Burma) PAPUA NEW GUINEA AUSTRALIA NEW ZEALAND EGYPT SUDAN KENYA SOUTH AFRICA GUYANA MALAYSIA YEMEN OMAN FALKLAND ISLANDS NIGERIA Think! What do you notice about these countries? Why do you think these countries were colonised?
  • Slide 7
  • TASK: 1)Add these major trade routes to your map. 2)Include a key showing i) British colonies ii) trade routes The British Empire was founded on exploration and sea power. The Royal Navy dominated the seas from around 1700 1930. The Navy provided a link between the home country and overseas colonies. The Navy was also a symbol of MILITARY POWER UK > Guinea Guinea > South Africa South Africa > Kenya Kenya > India India > Malaysia UK > Falkland Islands Question: Using the knowledge you have so far, give a simple answer to this question. What was the British Empire? Click Here for Explanation
  • Slide 8
  • What does this image represent? Colonial India What were the benefits of the UK having a colony in India? Exploit resources Exploit workforce COLONISATION
  • Slide 9
  • The steamship and the telegraph, new technologies invented in the second half of the 19th century, underpinned British imperial strength, allowing it to control and defend the sprawling empire. By 1902, the British Empire was linked together by a network of telegraph cables, the so-called All Red Line. (from wikipedia) The British Empire included Canada, Jamaica, India, Pakistan, Australia, Egypt, Kenya, Ireland, Suriname, Afghanistan, Normandy, America, Hong-Kong, New Zealand, Burma, Nepal, Blize, Bahamas and Grenada After World War II, Britain was left virtually bankrupt, with insolvency only averted in 1946 after the negotiation of a $3.5 billion loan from the United States, the last instalment of which was repaid in 2006. At the peak of its power, it was often said that "the sun never sets on the British Empire" because its span across the globe ensured that the sun was always shining on at least one of its numerous territories. - The sun still does not set on Britain's 14 remaining sovereign territories. India was the largest populated country in the empire and had a larger population than England by two or three times By 1921, the British Empire held sway over a population of about 458 million people, approximately one-quarter of the world's population, and covered more than 13 million square miles, almost a quarter of Earth's total land area (from wikipedia)
  • Slide 10
  • Read p142
  • Slide 11
  • Why did it develop?
  • Slide 12
  • Mercantilism Mercantilism and Chartered Monopoly Companies were becoming quite the fashion in the late Sixteenth and Seventeenth century. The king could give permission to explorers to claim lands on his behalf and then authorise certain companies (with the aid of Charters) to exploit the natural resources in that part of the world in return for a fixed income to the Monarch. In many ways it was something for nothing for the ruler. He could provide exclusive (monopoly) rights to certain cronies in return for money, political support or promotion at home. It invariably, but not always, resulted in ignoring the rights of any indigenous or local peoples that were 'in the way'. If the political entity was too large and powerful then alliances might be entered into or the Monarch might lend the Company the support of his nation's military wings.
  • Slide 13
  • Slavery would show just how exploitative this system could be. Plantations needed labour and labour was available, relatively cheaply, in West Africa.
  • Slide 14
  • Technological and Industrial Superiority Britain would become the first nation to harness the power of steam which in turn would unleash an Industrial Revolution and an avalanche of high quality, mass-produced goods that would flood the markets around the world. They, in turn, would provide a technology gap that non-European nations would find difficult to compete with. Precision-made muskets, rifles, machine guns, train locomotives, steam ships would provide the relatively small and outstretched British armed forces with unparalleled advantages. They could take on vastly larger enemies and yet beat them off, subdue and suppress them. British weaponry was very effective and its communication systems allowed it to shepherd its meagre resources to devastating effect and even its medical resources would improve enough to allow its soldiers and sailors to penetrate deeper and more inaccessible areas. Britain was not the only nation to enjoy a technological advantage over non- European nations, but its combination of industrial might and maritime power meant that it had a peculiar advantage and one that would not be challenged until the development of guerrilla warfare and tactics in the twentieth century.
  • Slide 15
  • Strategic Imperatives The Empire was acquired for a variety of reasons that did not add up to a coherent whole. New colonies were being added in order to defend existing colonies and borders. The best example of this might be the colony of India. It was certainly regarded as the Jewel in the Crown of the British Empire but it also meant that a surprising number of supporting colonies would be added to guard the so-called Jewel itself or the routes to and from the Jewel. For example, the British were keen to take control of the Cape Colony from the Dutch during the Napoleonic Wars to secure the main sea route to India. Of course, when the Suez Canal was opened in the 1869, it was not long before the British took a controlling interest in the Suez Canal Company and soon became involved in controlling the Egyptian administration itself. There was a relentless logic to guarding the next valley, river or island that soon got the British involved in places that had little strategic importance except to the colonies that it already controlled.
  • Slide 16
  • Maritime Advantages The Royal Navy would undoubtedly become a formidable military institution, but it was not always inevitable that Britannia would rule the waves. Naturally, being an island nation, shipbuilding and sailing would be important skills and industries to a country like England. The battle of Trafalgar in 1805 would become the defining naval battle for the next century. For the rest of the nineteenth century, there was no maritime power who could come close to challenging British domination of the maritime communication and trade routes. This meant that the British could hoover up all the outlying French, Spanish and Dutch colonies in the remainder of the Napoleonic Wars and could then guarantee the safety of all of these isolated outposts from at least maritime threats. Britannia really would rule the waves and this undoubtedly made imperialism easier to implement.
  • Slide 17
  • Understanding colonialism as a sign of power 1)Read page 142-143 Oxford
  • Slide 18
  • 2) See page 144/145 Prepare a presentation arguing that a certain theory underpinned the rise of British colonialism in the world. Presentations will be in role. Some groups will be preparing debates to counter each view. In each case research is needed to support your view dont just have information about the background of each theory but actually say why it was true or indeed false.
  • Slide 19
  • 2) See page 144/145 Prepare a presentation arguing that a certain theory underpinned the rise of British colonialism in the world. Presentations will be in role. Some groups will be preparing debates to counter each view. In each case research is needed to support your view dont just have information about the background of each theory but actually say why it was true or indeed false. Jim Mc Nut Pro Modernism
  • Slide 20
  • 2) See page 144/145 Prepare a presentation arguing that a certain theory underpinned the rise of British colonialism in the world. Presentations will be in role. Some groups will be preparing debates to counter each view. In each case research is needed to support your view dont just have information about the background of each theory but actually say why it was true or indeed false. Jim Mc Nut Pro Modernism Reverend Semilina Pudding Pro Evangelical Christianity and soci