what happened to the han dynasty? most of the advances from the qin-han era seem to have been lost...
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What happened to the Han Dynasty?Most of the advances from the Qin-Han Era seem to have been lostBureaucracyImportance of the scholarsReminded many of the time of the Warring StatesNon-Chinese nomads ruledA foreign religion, Buddhism, found many followersTrade, city life and technology declined
Enter the SuiSeemed at first to be just more warring factionsGeneral Yang Jian who becomes emperor Wen Di conquers the Northern Wei and the Southern Chen and is able to reunite the core areas of Chinese civilization for the first time in 3+ centuries
How did the Sui govern?Emperors Wen Di and son Yang Di are remembered for their harsh ruleForced many peasants to fight in the army or to work on public works projects to pay off debts
Belief systems under the Sui Wen Di, although Buddhist, encouraged the practice of Confucianism and Daoism as well.Erected thousands of stupas across China to encourage Buddhism, yet understood the Chinese importance of Confucianism.Respect for elders and traditionsScholarshipGovernment trained officials
How did the Sui affect daily life?Built the Grand Canal which promoted trade by connecting the Yellow and Yangtze riversHelped rebuild the Great Wall that provided security from Northern raidersRice will replace millet as the staple food in ChinaMerchants in the South will use the canal to extent their business and influence into the North
How did the Sui unite China?Undertook extensive public works projects which reinvigorated the populousExtended military control over large stretches of ChinaSense of Nationalism
Fall of the SuiYang Di pretty tyrannicalMurdered his father to take the throneOverly fond of luxury and had thousands of peasant build palaces and canalsBuilt and extensive game park, but had to bring in the treesUnsuccessful wars against Korea that almost defeats against the Turks force revolts against himAssassinated by his own ministers in 618
Enter the TangRise to power:618, Li shi Min captured Changan and LuoyangWill make himself emperor Dai Zong in 626Conquers deep into Asia and to Afghanistan; recruited Turkic soldiers; extended west into the Tibet, south to Vietnam, north to Korea
How did the Tang govern China?Under Wu Zhao, Chinas only empress, the Tang ruled one of the most geographically extensive empires in Chinese historyOrganized the government into departments, each with its own areaThe Bureaucrats upheld Confucian ideals by acting as artists and politiciansUnder Xuan Zong (713-756) Chinese painting and poetry reached a peak, but this will lead to the downfall
Belief systems under the TangEmpress Wu (690-705) supported Buddhism to the point of wanting to make it the state religionElites tend towards Zen (chan) Buddhism Confucianism will still be encouraged due to the examination systemEmperor Wu Zong will suppress Buddhism (economic issues) to the point of open persecution.
How did the Tang effect daily life?Created the equal field system which limited the power of the rural aristocracyScholar class become the new ruling classLand reforms gave some peasants a chance to gain wealth
How did the Tang help unite China?Emperors directly controlled the army and extended the boundariesThe equal field system benefited both the government and commoners
The decline of the TangXuan Zong became too interested in the arts, especially music.After the death of his wife, became infatuated with a concubine, Yang Guifei.She will put many members of her family into powerful positions angers many of the elite.Rebellion will occur, and outside forces will become threats.
The Song DynastyRise to Power:Tai Zu emerged after 50 years of Civil War to found the Song Dynasty at KaifengWill only rule on Chinas provinces south of the Great wallWill have to contain the many hostile ethnic groups clustered on Chinas borders (Mongolians, Jurchens, Khitans)Power will shift from the north to the south
How did the Song govern China?Mongolians and Manchurians harassed Chinas southern border for 200 yearsSong royal family was forced by Jurchen to establish a new capital at HangzhouGovernment officials came from southern China because the north was under foreign ruleBureaucrats were selected according to their scores on the civil service exam despite economic status
Belief systems under the SongRevival of Confucianism ideas and values: Neo-ConfuciansBelieved that personal morality was the highest goal for humansVirtue can be attained through book knowledge and observation as well as through wise menGreat emphasis on rank, obligation, deference and traditional ritualsThis will reinforce class, age and gender distinctions
How did the Song affect daily life?Power of the merchant class rose as large-scale trade thrivedCambodian strain of rice allowed farmers to double outputTechnological advances produced new products
How did the Song help unite China?Moved the center of Chinese culture south to KaifengUsed meritocracy to make government efficient and reliable
The Yuan DynastyRise to Power:Dynasty founded by Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis KhanFought the Song for 40 years before founding Chinas only foreign-ruled dynasty
How did the Yuan dynasty govern China?The Civil service system was maintained and staffed by Turks and PersiansA strict hierarchy of social service classes developed:1. Tax-free Mongols2. Non-Chinese civil servants3. Northern Chinese4. Southern Chinese
Beliefs systems under the YuanKublai Khan retained shamanismGood and Evil spirits pervade the world and can be summoned and heard only through ShamansThe traditional Chinese belief systems were largely unaffected by Yuan ruleUnder Kublai Khans encouragement the number of Buddhist monasteries increased
How was daily life affected under the Yuan?Yuan dynastys bloody wars of conquest led to the destruction of farmlandAlso seized land for pastures many Chinese starved and diedKublai Khan maintained Chinas roads and canals, but later Yuan emperors let them deteriorate
How did the Yuan help unite China?Retained civil service, but staffed it with foreignersAllowed Chinese belief system to coexist with Mongol shamanismBrought in more from the West due to the travels and stories of Marco Polo
HomeworkRead the chapter and add to your chartAnswer the following:How did the examination system change from the Tang to the Song? The economy?How did trade improve and change over time in China?Describe the family unit and gender roles.What can Neo-Confucianism be blamed for?Describe the different forms of literature throughout the dynasties.Describe Chinese painting.