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What Does This Mean?. it has been said that democracy is the worst form of government except for all those other forms that have been tried from time to time.. Articles of Confederation. First Constitution of the United States. June 12, 1776. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • What Does This Mean?it has been said that democracy is the worst form of government except for all those other forms that have been tried from time to time.

  • Articles of ConfederationFirst Constitution of the United States

  • June 12, 1776Committee of 13 set up by Second Continental CongressPurpose: Draft a constitution to secure freedom, sovereignty and independenceWritten primarily by John Dickinson of DelawareConfederation of the United States of America

  • Writing of Articles of ConfederationInitially Dickinson wanted national government to be able to:Control western lands disputesEnsure equal representation for the statesLevy taxes

  • Articles of ConfederationStates feared powerful central governmentStates given as much independence as possible Limited powers of central government

  • Articles of Confederation

    Contained:Preamble 13 articlesConclusion Signature areasFirst Constitution of the United StatesMarch 1, 1781 to June 21, 1788

  • Articles of ConfederationProvided a blanket acceptance for Canada to become part of the United StatesCongressional representation based on population of a stateEach state had one vote in Congress

  • Problems with RatificationIt took almost 5 years to ratify Control of western land debateCreated loose confederation of independent statesLimited powers to the central government

  • Weaknesses of Articles: Weak National GovernmentRequest donations from the states to raise armed forces and control western territoriesJudicial was in each state and honored by each otherOnly judicial power Congress had was to mediate between statesDonations by states based on value of landAny amendment to the Articles of Confederation required all states to approve it

  • Weaknesses of the Articles of ConfederationCongress elected by the state legislaturesLaws difficult to pass (approval 9 out of 13 states required)Congress given no power to collect taxesCongress given no power to regulate tradeCongress given no power to coin moneyCongress given no power to establish armed forceseach state had its own troopsNo president or executive branchNo system of national courtsStates given most powers; few powers given to the national government

  • Weaknesses: States Controlled Most of PowerCentral government did not have sufficient authorityStates could refuse to give the government the moneyStates had tax and trade wars between each otherGovernment could not pay off debts from the American Revolution or pay the soldiers who fought in it or people who gave supplies

  • Illustration of WeaknessesShays RebellionUprising in western Massachusetts in 1786 and 1787 by poor farmers led by Daniel ShayCauses: taxes on land, legal costs Economic depression after the Revolutionary WarWeak federal government could not raise an army to assist

  • Shays RebellionDemands:Laws to protect farmersDissolving the court of common appeals Reduction of taxesShay and his men marched into Springfield, Massachusetts to seize a federal arsenalMilitia under General Benjamin Lincoln stopped themMost of the men were pardoned a year laterForced political leaders to make laws that could effectively govern the nation

  • Barbary PiratesLate 1700s nations paid tribute to the pirates of North Africa to ensure merchant shipping without attacksPirates had been in area since the Crusades: attacked ports, captured people for slavery and looted merchant ships

  • Barbary PiratesEuropean nations worked out treaties with Arab rulers who sponsored piratesMorocco, Algeria, Tunis and TripoliMarch 1786 Thomas Jefferson, ambassador to France and John Adams, ambassador to Great Britain met with ruler in Tripoli to settle the issue

  • Barbary PiratesU.S. paid tribute until 1800 to free captured AmericansFirst Barbary War 1801-1805: Navy ship Philadelphia sent to Tripoli and was capturedLT Stephen Decatur sailed into Tripoli on a captured ship to recapture Philadelphia and succeededCO of Philadelphia, CAPT William Bainbridge rescued

  • Barbary Pirates1805: To the Shores of TripoliNavy and Marines under LT Presley OBannon Battle of DernaAttacked Tripoli captured the fort New ruler presented OBannon with a Marmaluke sword, which is named after African warriorsSword used with the Marine Dress Uniform is similarTreaty signed 1806

  • Marine Dress Sword

  • Barbary PiratesSecond Barbary War 1815 Between U.S. and AlgiersStephen Decatur and William Bainbridge sent a fleet of 10 vessels and captured Algerian shipsAlgerian ruler signed a treatyHelped U.S. with identity on the international level and supported a need for a strong navy, army and national government

  • Result of Articles of Confederation FailuresFebruary 21, 1787, Congress called for a Constitutional Convention to revise the articlesBetween May and September, 1787, the convention wrote the Constitution of the United States, which retained some features of the Articles, but the major difference was a strong central government with 3 branches, including a Congress with two housesConstitution was ratified on September 17, 1787