What computers are - it321.files. Computers (1642 –1945) •First Generation Vacuum Tubes (1946 –1959) •Second Generation Transistors ... Computer Generations.

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  • IT321-Introduction1

    Computer Architecture

    Introduction

    IT 321

    1st semester 1435/1436

    2014/2015

  • IT321-Introduction2

    What computers are?

    Computers are programmable

    They solve problems

  • Zeroth GenerationMechanical Computers (1642 1945)

    First GenerationVacuum Tubes (1946 1959)

    Second GenerationTransistors (1959 1965)

    Third GenerationIntegrated Circuits (1965 1971)

    Fourth GenerationVery Large Scale Integration (1971 1980)

    Fifth GenerationUltra Large Scale Integration (1980 ?)

    IT321-Introduction3

    Computer Generations

  • First Generation

    Vacuum Tubes

    IT321-Introduction4

  • First Generation

    Vacuum TubesThe main features of First Generation are:

    Supported Machine language only

    Very costly

    Generate lot of heat

    Slow Input/Output device

    Huge size

    Consumed lot of electricity

    IT321-Introduction5

  • Second Generation -

    Transistor Transistor was Invented 1947 at Bell Labs

    Replaced vacuum tubes

    Smaller

    Cheaper

    Less heat dissipation

    more reliable

    Support machine,assmebly and high level

    programming language (Fortran,Cobol)

    IT321-Introduction6

  • Third Generation / IC

    Integrated Circuits (IC's) in place of

    transistors

    A single IC has many transistors, resistors

    and capacitors along with the associated

    circuitry.

    IT321-Introduction7

  • Integrated Circuit (IC)

    SSI -several (less than 10) independent gates

    MSI - 10 to 200 gates; Perform elementary digital functions; Decoder, adder, register, parity checker, etc

    LSI - 200 to few thousand gates; Digital subsystem; Processor, memory, etc

    VLSI - Thousands of gates; Digital system; Microprocessor, memory module

    UlSI millions of gates; ; Digital system; Microprocessor, memory module

    IT321-Introduction8

  • Third Generation / IC

    The main features of Third Generation are:

    IC used

    More reliable

    Smaller size

    Generate less heat

    Faster

    Lesser maintenance

    Still costly

    Consumed lesser electricity

    Support high level language

    IT321-Introduction9

  • Third Generation / IC

    IT321-Introduction10

    PDP 8 by DEC - First Mini computer

  • Fourth generation - VLSI

    IT321-Introduction11

  • Fourth generation - VLSI

    The main features of Fourth Generation are:

    VLSI technology used

    Very cheap

    Portable and reliable

    Very small size

    Pipeline processing

    IT321-Introduction12

  • Fifth Generation

    The main features of Fifth Generation are:

    ULSI technolog y

    Advancement in Parallel Processing

    More user friendly interfaces with multimedia features

    Availability of very powerful and compact computers at

    cheaper rates

    Some computer types of this generation are: Desktop,

    Laptop, NoteBook.

    IT321-Introduction13

  • Fifth Generation

    IT321-Introduction14

  • IT321-Introduction15

    What computers are?

    Computers are programmable digital

    electronic devices.

    They solve problems using algorithms.

    They consist of hierarchical layers of

    hardware and software.

  • IT321-Introduction16

    Abstractions

    hardware or software layers are called

    abstractions

    abstractions are a way to cope with

    complexity

    lower-level details are hidden to offer a

    simpler model at higher levels

  • IT321-Introduction17

  • Digital Electronic Device

    Computers are programmable digital

    electronic devices.

    Electronic device deals with electrical

    signals

    Digital information is presented by

    variables takes a limited number of discrete

    values.

    Discrete values are processed internally by

    components that contain a limited number of

    discrete states.

    IT321-Introduction18

  • IT321-Introduction19

    Digital System

    Takes a set of discrete information inputs and

    discrete internal information (system state) and

    generates a set of discrete information outputs.

    System State

    Discrete

    Information

    Processing

    System

    Discrete

    Inputs Discrete

    Outputs

  • IT321-Introduction20

    Types of Digital Systems

    No state present Combinational Logic System

    Output = Function(Input)

    State present State updated at discrete times

    => Synchronous Sequential System State updated at any time

    =>Asynchronous Sequential System State = Function (State, Input)

    Output = Function (State) or Function (State, Input)

  • IT321-Introduction21

    A Digital Computer Example

    Synchronous or

    Asynchronous?

    Inputs:

    Keyboard,

    mouse, modem,

    microphone

    Outputs: CRT,

    LCD, modem,

    speakers

    Memory

    Controlunit

    Datapath

    Input/Output

    CPU

  • IT321-Introduction22

    Signal An information variable represented by physical

    quantity.

    For digital systems, the variable takes on discrete values.

    Two level, or binary values are the most prevalent values in digital systems.

    Binary values are represented abstractly by: digits 0 and 1

    words (symbols) False (F) and True (T)

    words (symbols) Low (L) and High (H)

    and words On and Off.

    Binary values are represented by values or ranges of values of physical quantities

  • Course Outcomes

    Define major components and their interactions

    in computer architecture.

    Apply Boolean algebra , Karnaugh Maps. and

    Symbolic Logic to Circuit Analysis and Design.

    Analyze digital Circuits.

    Design digital Circuits.

    Describe basic memory systems.

    Design the data path of a computer.

    Design a simple instruction set computer with

    hardwired control unit.

    IT321-Introduction23

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