What Are Proteins and What Do They Do

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<ul><li><p>7/28/2019 What Are Proteins and What Do They Do</p><p> 1/3</p><p>Vocabulary</p><p> Amino Acid: Compound with an amino group (NH2) on one end and a carboxylgroup (COOH) on the other end; the monomer for polypeptides and proteins.</p><p> Dehydration Synthesis: A reaction that combines two molecules by removing anH from one molecule and anOH from the other molecule, producing a water</p><p>molecule and a polymer.</p><p> Hydrolysis: The opposite of dehydration synthesis; a reaction that breaks apart apolymer into two subunits by the addition of anH and anOH group from a</p><p>water molecule.</p><p> Lipids: A large group of non-polar organic molecules that are water insoluble,soluble in organic solvents, can be/are ester-linked with fatty acids and includes</p><p>fats, waxes, and sterols.</p><p> Macromolecule: A complex molecule made by some form of polymerization. Monomer: A small molecule that bonds to other molecules to form a polymer. Nucleic Acids: A group of organic macromolecules that are made of nucleotides.</p><p>Contain hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. They are polymers of</p><p>nucleotides. Examples are RNA, DNA, and ATP.</p><p> Nucleotide: The basic building block of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. It isa compound made up of a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar, and a phosphate</p><p>group.</p><p> Organic Molecule: Molecules containing one or more carbon-carbon bonds orcarbon-hydrogen bonds. Polymer: A large molecule made up of many repeating structural units</p><p>called monomers.</p><p> Polymerization: Process that forms a large molecule (polymer) from repeatingsubunit molecules (monomers).</p><p> Polypeptide: A chain of up to 100 amino acids. Protein: An organic molecule made of one or more polypeptides that perform a</p><p>specific function. Contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.</p><p>What are proteins and what do they do?</p><p> Proteins are large, complex molecules that play many critical roles in the body. They do most of the work in cells and are required for the structure, function, and</p><p>regulation of the bodys tissues and organs.</p></li><li><p>7/28/2019 What Are Proteins and What Do They Do</p><p> 2/3</p><p> Proteins are made up of hundreds or thousands of smaller units called amino acids,which are attached to one another in long chains.</p><p> There are 20 different types of amino acids that can be combined to make aprotein.</p><p> The sequence of amino acids determines each proteins unique 3-dimensionalstructure and its specific function.</p><p> Proteins can be described according to their large range of functions in the body,listed in alphabetical order:</p><p>What are proteins made of?</p><p> The ingredients of a protein are amino acids. To build a protein we need to build a long chain of amino acids.</p>http://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?proteinhttp://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?aminoacidhttp://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?aminoacidhttp://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?protein</li><li><p>7/28/2019 What Are Proteins and What Do They Do</p><p> 3/3</p><p> There are 20 different types of amino acids, so there are lots of different proteinchains we can build.</p><p> Biologists give amino acids a code letter, as forDNA. This is much easier than writing out the whole name each time. For example, M is</p><p>methionine, L is leucine,F is phenylalanine (because P is proline).</p><p> Since there are four different DNA letters (A, G, C and T), there are 4 x 4 x 4 = 64different combinations that can be used. However, as there are only 20 different</p><p>types ofamino acid, some of these 64 codons code for the same amino acid. Some</p><p>of the 64 codons don't code for any of the amino acids. Instead they provide the</p><p>punctuation and grammar, like where thecell should start and stop</p>http://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?dnahttp://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?dnahttp://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?adeninehttp://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?guaninehttp://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?cytosinehttp://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?thyminehttp://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?aminoacidhttp://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?codonhttp://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?cellhttp://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?cellhttp://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?codonhttp://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?aminoacidhttp://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?thyminehttp://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?cytosinehttp://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?guaninehttp://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?adeninehttp://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?dnahttp://www.yourgenome.org/glossary/?dna</li></ul>