wh chapter 9 section 1 notes

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  • 1. Section 1 Notes

2. Monarchs, Nobles, and the Church Feudal monarchs in Europe were at the head ofsociety but had limited power because they had to rely on vassals for military support Nobles and the Church had as much or more power than the monarch Monarchs resorted to royal justice systems, tax systems, and standing armies in order to try to gain some power back 3. Strong Monarchs in England During the Middle Ages, Angles, Saxons, and Vikings invaded and settled in England At the age of 7, William of Normandy was made a duke In 1066, William and Harold fought for control of England at the Battle of Hastings This battle was important because it put England under Norman control William the Conqueror assumes the crown of England on Christmas Day, 1066 4. William the Conqueror 5. The Battle of Hastings 6. Battle of Hastings 7. Battle of Hastings Re-creation 8. Growth of Royal Power In 1086, William the Conqueror had a census taken of his kingdom The resulting Domesday Book listed every castle, field, and pigpen in England It was a thorough survey and census Information from it helped William and later English monarchs build an efficient system of tax collecting Royal exchequer (treasury)---job was to collect taxes 9. A Unified Legal System In 1154, a young, well-educated king named Henry II inherited the throne He broadened the system of royal justice Common law---a legal system based on custom and court rulings Under Henry II, England also developed an early jury system Jury---purpose is to determine guilt or innocence These early juries determined which cases could be brought to trial (grand jury) and another jury evolved that was composed of 12 neighbors of an accused person (trial jury) 10. Henry II 11. Conflict with the Church Henry II claimed the right to try clergy members inroyal courts Thomas Beckett (archbishop of Canterbury) disagreed with Henry and the two constantly fought In 1170, Beckett was murdered in his own cathedral Beckett was declared a martyr and a saint and pilgrims began to flock to his tomb at Canterbury (basis for Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales) 12. Thomas Beckett 13. Canterbury Cathedral 14. Becketts Tomb 15. Johns Troubles Henrys son John was a clever, greedy, cruel, anduntrustworthy leader who during his reign faced three powerful enemies: King Phillip II of France, Pope Innocent III, and his own English nobles John lost a war with Phillip II and had to give up English-held lands in France John battled Pope Innocent III over selecting a new archbishop of Canterbury John was threatened with all of England under an interdict---so he gave in and had to accept England as a fief of the papacy and pay a yearly fee to Rome 16. King John 17. The Magna Carta John ticked off his own nobles with oppressive taxesand other abuses of his power In 1215, a group of rebellious barons cornered John and forced him to sign the Magna Carta Magna Carta---Great Charter---most important part was due process of law The Magna Carta helped shape English government in the long run by: 1. nobles had certain rights and 2. monarchs had to obey the law 18. Signing of the Magna Carta 19. Magna Carta 20. Development of Parliament In 1295, Edward summoned Parliament to approve money for his wars with France He had representatives of the common people join with the lords and clergy Common people included two knights from each county and representatives of towns Two houses developed in the modern British Parliament: The House of Lords (nobles and high clergy) and the House of Commons (knights and middle-class citizens) Parliament eventually got the power of the purse---they could limit the power of a monarch by controlling and approving spending 21. British Parliament 22. British Parliament 23. Successful Monarchs in France--The Capetians Hugh Capet was elected to fill the vacant throne in 987 He slowly increased his and his heirs royal power bymaking the succession hereditary, playing rival nobles against one another, and winning support from the Church The Capetians enjoyed unbroken succession for over 300 years The Capetians built an effective bureaucracy Government officials collected taxes and imposed royal law over the kings domain 24. Hugh Capet 25. Philip Augustus Also known as Philip II; was a shrewd and able ruler He strengthened royal government in France bygranting charters, having a standing army, introducing a new national tax, and paying middle-class officials to work in government positions He was able to quadruple his land holdings and by the time of his death in 1223, he was the most powerful ruler in Europe 26. Phillip II (Phillip Augustus) 27. Louis IX, King and Saint He ascended to the throne in 1226 and embodied theperfect medieval monarch---generous, noble, and devoted to justice and chivalry He was a deeply religious man and became a saint within 30 years of his death Louis IX helped advance Christianity by prosecuting heretics and Jews and leading French knights in two wars against Muslims 28. Louis IX 29. Philip IV Grandson of Louis IX who ruled ruthlessly to extendroyal power To raise cash, he tried to collect new taxes from the clergy which led to a clash with Pope Boniface VIII 30. The Estates General Phillip rallied support by setting up the EstatesGeneral in 1302 This body had representatives from all three estates, or classes: clergy, nobles, and townspeople Although later French kings consulted the Estates General, it did not develop the same role that the English Parliament did because it never gained the power of the purse or otherwise serve as a balance to royal power