wh chapter 8 section 1 notes

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  • 1. Section 1 Notes
  • 2. Around 600 AD, waves of invaders were sweeping across Europe Trade slowed to a trickle, towns emptied, and learning virtually ceased The period from about 500-1450 AD is known today as the Middle Ages because it came between the fall of Rome and the start of the modern era During the Middle Ages, Europe was a backward region cut off from advanced civilizations Medieval civilization---blended Greco-Roman, Germanic, and Christian traditions
  • 3. Europe is relatively small---the second smallest in land area of the seven continents It lies on the western edge of Eurasia, the giant land mass that stretches from presentday Portugal in the west all the way to China in the east Despite Europes size, its impact on the modern world has been enormous
  • 4. From about 500-1000 AD, this region was a frontier land---sparsely populated and undeveloped area Resources---dense forests, rich earth, minerals, seas, rivers and streams
  • 5. The Germanic tribes had a culture that differed greatly from that of the Romans Differences---they were farmers and herders, lived in small communities instead of cities, had no written laws They elected kings to lead them in war Warrior nobles swore loyalty to the king in exchange for weapons or loot
  • 6. Between 400 and 700 AD, Germanic tribes carved Western Europe into small kingdoms The strongest kingdom to emerge was that of the Franks In 486 AD, Clovis, king of the Franks, conquered the former Roman province of Gaul He ruled his new lands according to Frankish custom but also preserved Roman legacy in Gaul Clovis took an important step when he converted to Christianity He gained a powerful ally in the Christian Church of Rome by doing so
  • 7. As the Franks and other Germanic peoples carved up Europe, a new power was emerging across the Mediterranean The religion of Islam appeared in Arabia in 632 AD From there, Muslims built a huge empire and created a civilization European Christians were stunned when Muslim armies overran Christian lands from Palestine to North Africa to Spain
  • 8. When a Muslim army crossed into France, Charles The Hammer Martel rallied Frankish warriors At the Battle of Tours in 732 AD, Christian warriors triumphed over the Muslim armies This was supposedly a sign that God was on their side The Battle of Tours was important because it stopped the Muslim advance into Western Europe, although the Muslims continued to rule Spain
  • 9. Around 800 AD, Western Europe had a moment of unity when The Hammers grandson built an empire reaching across France, Germany, and part of Italy This emperor was known as Charlemagne (Charles the Great) He loved battle and spent much of his 46-year reign fighting Muslims in Spain, Saxons in the north, Avars and Slavs in the east, and Lombards in Italy His conquests united reunited much of the Old Roman empire
  • 10. In 800 AD, Pope Leo III called on Charlemagne for help against rebellious nobles in Rome Frankish armies marched south and crushed the rebellion On Christmas Day, the pope showed his gratitude by crowning Charlemagne and proclaiming him Emperor of the Romans This was a significant event because a Christian pope had crowned a German king successor to the Roman emperors In the long run, the crowning of Charlemagne helped widen the split between the eastern and western Christian worlds
  • 11. Charlemagne tried to exercise control over his many lands and create a united Christian Empire Working closely with the Church, he helped spread Christianity to the conquered peoples on the fringes of his empire Missionaries converted many Saxons and Slavs
  • 12. Charlemagne appointed powerful nobles to rule local regions He gave them land so that they could offer support and supply soldiers for his armies To keep control of these provincial rulers, he sent out officials called missi dominici Their job was to check on roads, listen to grievances, and see that justice was done
  • 13. Charlemagne wanted to make his court at Aachen a second Rome He set out to revive Latin learning in his empire Education had declined so much that even educated clergy were often ignorant Charlemagne himself could read but not write
  • 14. Charlemagne founded a school at Aachen under the direction of a respected scholar, Alcuin of York Alcuin created a curriculum based on Latin learning The curriculum included grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy Alcuin also hired scholars to copy ancient manuscripts, including the Bible and Latin works of history and science Alcuins model would become the educational model for medieval Europe
  • 15. After Charlemagne died in 814 AD, his empire soon fell apart He heirs battled for power for nearly 30 years Finally in 843 AD, Charlemagnes grandsons drew up the Treaty of Verdun which split the empire into three regions
  • 16. Charlemagne left a lasting legacy He extended Christian civilization into northern Europe and furthered the blending of German, Roman, and Christian traditions He also set up strong, efficient governments Later medieval rulers look to his example when they tried to strengthen their own kingdoms
  • 17. Charlemagnes heirs faced new waves of invasions Despite the victory at Tours, Muslim forces still posed a threat to Europe About 896 AD, the Magyars settled in what is today Hungary From there, they overran eastern Europe and moved on to plunder Germany, parts of France, and Italy Finally, after 50 years, they were pushed back into Hungary
  • 18. The Vikings snapped the last threats of unity in Charlemagnes empire These expert sailors burst out of Scandinavia, a northern region that now includes Norway, Sweden, and Denmark Starting in the 900s AD, they looted and burned communities along the coasts and rivers of Europe
  • 19. The Vikings were not just destructive raiders They were also traders and explorers who sailed around the Mediterranean Sea and across the Atlantic Ocean Vikings opened trade routes that linked northern Europe to Mediterranean lands Vikings also settled in England, Ireland, northern France, and parts of Russia Around the year 1000, Leif Erikson set up a short-lived Viking colony on North America
  • 20. According to Viking mythology, Valhalla was a great hall in the grandest palace of Odin, king of the gods The walls of Valhalla were gold, and its roof was made of battle shields Vikings believed that if they died heroically in battle, they would spend eternity fighting and feasting in Valhalla with Odin To make the voyage to Valhalla, a Viking hero needed a proper funeral This included being buried with is weapons, his clothing, and a ship Servants of Viking warriors were buried with them to serve their masters on the journey and beyond Sometimes, instead of being buried, the fully stocked ship was cast adrift and burned
  • 21. Lets liste