wh chapter 6 section 2 notes

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  • 1. Section 2 Notes
  • 2. Romes conquest of the Italian peninsula brought it into contact with Carthage, a citystate on the northern coast of Africa Settled by North Africans and Phoenician traders, Carthage ruled over an empire that stretched across North Africa and the western Mediterranean As Rome began to expand westward, conflict between the two powers was inevitable
  • 3. Between 264 BC and 146 BC, Rome fought three wars against Carthage They are known as the Punic Wars In the first Punic War, Rome defeated Carthage and won Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia
  • 4. The Carthaginians sought revenge in the Second Punic War In 218 BC, Carthaginian general Hannibal led his army, including war elephants, across the Pyrenees, through France, and over the Alps into Italy---this cost Hannibal half of his army He then surprised the Romans who expected an invasion from the south For 15 years, Hannibal and his army moved across Italy winning battle after battle
  • 5. The Carthaginians failed to capture Rome In the end, Rome sent an army to attack Carthage and Hannibal returned to defend his homeland, where he was defeated by the Romans Carthage then had to give up all of its lands except those in Africa Many Romans still saw Carthage as a rival and wanted revenge for the destruction Hannibals army caused in Italy For years, Cato, a wealthy senator, ended every speech he gave with the words Carthage must be destroyed
  • 6. Rome finally destroyed Carthage in the Third Punic War Survivors were killed or sold into slavery The Romans poured salt over the earth so that nothing would grow there again Finally, the Romans were now masters of the western Mediterranean
  • 7. Rome was committed to a policy of imperialism---establishing control over foreign lands and peoples Rome also was expanding into the eastern Mediterranean where they confronted Hellenistic rulers who had divided up the empire of Alexander the Great Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Asia Minor surrendered and became Roman provinces By 133 BC, Roman power extended from Spain to Egypt
  • 8. Conquests and control of busy trade routes brought incredible riches into Rome A new class of wealthy Romans emerged Wealthy families bought up huge estates, called latifundia People captured in war were forced to work on the latifundia The widespread use of slave labor hurt small farmers, who were unable to produce food as cheaply as the latifundia could
  • 9. The farmers problems were compounded when huge quantities of grain coming in from conquered lands drove down grain prices Many farmers fell into debt and had to sell their land Landless farmers flocked to Rome and joined more unemployed people---as the gap between rich and poor widened angry mobs sprang up The new wealth also increased corruption--greed and self-interest replaced virtues such as simplicity, hard work, and devotion to duty so prized in the early republic
  • 10. Two young patrician brothers, Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were among the first to attempt reform Tiberius, who was elected a tribune, called on the state to distribute land to poor farmers Gaius, elected a tribune 10 years later, sought a wider range of reforms including the use of public funds to buy grain to feed the poor The reforms of the Gracchus brothers angered the senate, which saw them as a threat to its power The brothers, along with thousands of their followers, were killed in waves of street violence set off by senators and their hired thugs
  • 11. Rome was plunged into a series of civil wars At issue was who should hold power----the senate, which wanted to govern as it had in the past, or popular political leaders, who wanted to weaken the senate and enact reforms The turmoil sparked slave uprisings and revolts among Romes allies Old legions of Roman citizen-soldiers became professional armies whose first loyalty was to their commanders Rival generals marched their armies into Rome to advance their ambitions
  • 12. Julius Caesar, an ambitious military commander, emerged from this chaos Julius conquered Gaul (France) after a nineyear battle Julius crushed his former ally Pompey and then put down rebellions around the Mediterranean Veni, Vidi, Vici He then returned to Rome and forced the senate to make him dictator
  • 13. Between 48 and 44 BC, Caesar pushed through a number of reforms to deal with Romes many problems Public works programs employed the jobless and gave public land to the poor His most lasting reform was the introduction of a new calendar The Julian calendar was used in western Europe for over 1,600 years (it is still our calendar today with only minor changes)
  • 14. Caesars enemies worried that he planned to make himself king of Rome In March 44 BC, as Caesar arrived in the senate, his enemies stabbed him to death Ides of March---March 15---day that Caesar was stabbed to death in the back
  • 15. The death of Julius Caesar plunged Rome into a new round of civil wars Mark Antony, Caesars chief general, and Octavian, Caesars grand nephew, joined forces to hunt down the murderers The two men soon quarreled, however, setting off a bitter power struggle In 31 BC, Ocatvian finally defeated Antony and his ally Queen Cleopatra
  • 16. Octavian was given the title of Augustus meaning Exalted One and became the first emperor of the Roman empire Augustus laid the foundation for a stable government He created an efficient, well-trained civil service to enforce the laws (high level jobs were open to all men regardless of class) He gave self-government to many cities and provinces
  • 17. Economic reforms also followed The tax system was made more fair by undertaking a census in the empire Census---count of the population He set up a postal service and issued new coins to make trade easier People without jobs built roads and temples and sent others to farm land The government that Augustus organized functioned well for 200 years
  • 18. Two of Augustus successors were crazy Caligula---had a relationship with one of his sisters and appointed his favorite horse as a consul Nero---persecuted Christians and was blamed for setting a great fire that destroyed much of Rome (Nero fiddled while Rome burned)
  • 19. There were also two good emperors Hadrian---codified Roman law making it the same for all provinces-he also had soldiers build a wall across Britain to hold back attackers from the non-Roman north Marcus Aurelius---read philosophy while he was on military campaigns and was a philosopher-king
  • 20. The two hundred year span that began with Augustus and ended with Marcus Aurelius was known as the Pax Romana i.e. Roman Peace Roman rule brought peace, order, unity, and prosperity to lands stretching from the Euphrates River in the east to Britain in the west, an area approximately the size of the continental United States
  • 21. Roman legions mai