WH Chapter 5 Section 5 Notes

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<p>Chapter 5 </p> <p>Chapter 5 </p> <p>Section 5 Notes</p> <p>Alexander the Great</p> <p>King Philip of Macedonia brought all of Greece under his control around 338 B.C.He then wanted to conquer the neighboring Persian empireHowever, he was assassinated at his daughters weddingHis son Alexander took over the thrown</p> <p>King Philip</p> <p>Macedonia Today</p> <p>The Former Yugoslavia</p> <p>Alexander the Great</p> <p>Alexander the Great</p> <p>Alexander took the thrown when he was only 20 years oldHe was well educated because his tutor had been AristotleHowever, he was a fierce warrior who wanted to conquer the Persian empireHe crossed the Dardanelles---the straight that separates Europe from Asia Minor</p> <p>Alexander the Great</p> <p>Alexander won victory after victory capturing Palestine, Egypt, Babylon and other Persian capitalsHe continued to push east and crossed the Hindu Kush mountains into northern IndiaHe continued winning battles, however, his troops began to grow tired and refused to continue moving eastAlexander then retreated and headed back to Babylon</p> <p>Alexanders Empire</p> <p>Alexander the Great</p> <p>While still in Babylon, Alexander contracted a fever and died---he left his empire to the strongestHowever, no one leader was strong enough to succeed AlexanderEventually, three generals divided up his empireMacedonia and Greece went to one general, Egypt to another, and most of Persia to a third</p> <p>The Legacy of Alexander</p> <p>Although Alexanders empire crumbled, he had unleashed changes that would ripple across the Mediterranean world and the Middle East for centuriesHis most lasting achievement was the spread of Greek cultureAlexander had founded many new cities that bore his nameLocal peoples assimilated Greek ideas</p> <p>The Legacy of Alexander</p> <p>Gradually, a blending of eastern and western cultures occurredAlexander encouraged this blending of cultures by marrying a Persian woman and urged his soldiers to follow his exampleHe also adopted many Persian customs including dressHellenistic culture---combined Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian influences</p> <p>The Legacy of Alexander</p> <p>The heart of the Hellenistic world was located in Alexandria, EgyptIt was located on the sea lanes between Europe and AsiaA Greek architect designed the cityOver a million people including Egyptians, Persians, Hebrews, and others lived thereThe most famous sight was the Pharos, an enormous lighthouse that was 440 feet tall</p> <p>Alexandria, Egypt</p> <p>Pharos</p> <p>The Legacy of Alexander</p> <p>Alexander and his successors encouraged the work of scholarsThe great Museum was built in Alexandria as a center of learningThe Museum boasted laboratories, lecture halls, and even a zoo!!!It had a well-stocked library with thousands of scrolls representing the accumulated knowledge of the ancient world</p> <p>The Legacy of Alexander</p> <p>During the Hellenistic period, paintings, statues, and legal codes all show that women were no longer restricted to their homesWomen learned to read and write---some became philosophers or poetsIn Egypt, Queen Cleopatra ruled the country ablely</p> <p>Cleopatra</p> <p>Hellenistic Civilization</p> <p>Political turmoil during the Hellenistic age contributed to the rise of new schools of philosophyStoicism---founded by Zeno---urged people to avoid desires and disappointments by accepting calmly whatever life broughtStoics preached high moral standards including the idea of protecting the rights of fellow humansThey taught that all people, including women and slaves, were morally equal because all had the power of reason</p> <p>Zeno---founder of Stoicism</p> <p>Hellenistic Civilization</p> <p>Hellenistic thinkers built on earlier Greek, Babylonian, and Egyptian knowledgePythagoras derived a formula to calculate the relationship between the sides of a right triangle (a + b=c)Euclid wrote The Elements, a textbook that became the basis for modern geometry</p> <p>Pythagoras</p> <p>Euclid</p> <p>Hellenistic Civilization</p> <p>The astronomer Aristarchus believed the Earth rotated on its axis and orbited the sun (heliocentric solar system that was not accepted until almost 2,000 years later)The astronomer Eratosthenes showed that Earth was round and accurately calculated its circumference</p> <p>Hellenistic Civilization</p> <p>The most famous Hellenistic scientist was ArchimedesHe applied principles of physics to make practical inventionsMastered the use of the lever and pulleyGive me a lever long enough and a place to stand on, and I will move the world</p> <p>Archimedes</p> <p>Hellenistic Civilization</p> <p>Hippocrates studied the causes of illnesses and look for curesHis Hippocratic oath set ethical standards for doctorsPhysicians swore to help the sick according to my ability and judgment but never with a view to injury and wrong and to protect the privacy of patientsPresent doctors take a similar oath</p> <p>Hippocrates</p> <p>Hippocratic Oath</p>