WH Chapter 5 Section 4 Notes

Download WH Chapter 5 Section 4 Notes

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<ul><li> 1. CHAPTER 5 Section 4 Notes </li> <li> 2. Greek Philosophers Greek achievements in the arts signified the height of human development in the western world Greek thinks used observation and reason to find causes for things instead of believing they were caused by the whims of the gods Philosophers---lovers of wisdom Studied logic---rational thinking Through reason and observation, they believed, they could discover laws that governed the universe </li> <li> 3. Greek Philosophers Others Greek philosophers were interested in ethics and morality What is the best kind of government? and What standards should rule human behavior? Developed skills in rhetoric---art of skillful speaking Socrates---Athenian stone mason and philosopher Socratic method---pose a series of questions and examine the implications of each answer He believed this patient examination was a way to help others seek truth and self-knowledge </li> <li> 4. Socrates </li> <li> 5. Greek Philosophers When he was 70 years old, Socrates was put on trial for supposedly corrupting the youth of Athens and failing to respect the gods He stood before a jury of 501 citizens and offered a calm defense of his practices He was condemned to death by the jury He drank a cup of hemlock and died </li> <li> 6. Greek Philosophers Plato---Socrates student---he fled Athens for 10 years after Socrates death and distrusted democracy He returned and set up a school called the Academy and taught and wrote He believed through rational thought, people could discover unchanging ethical values, recognize perfect beauty, and learn how to best organize society </li> <li> 7. Plato </li> <li> 8. Greek Philosophers Platos Republic---his vision of an ideal state Argued that the state should regulate every aspect of its citizens lives in order to provide for their best interests Three classes: workers to produce the necessities of life, soldiers to defend the state, and philosophers to rule </li> <li> 9. Greek Philosophers Aristotle---Platos most famous student Analyzed all forms of government from monarchy to democracy, and found good and bad examples of each Was suspicious of democracy---thought it could lead to mob rule Believed that rule by a single strong and virtuous leader was best </li> <li> 10. Aristotle </li> <li> 11. Greek Philosophers Aristotle thought about how people should live Golden mean---good conduct with a moderate course between extremes Set up a school, the Lyceum, for the study of all branches of knowledge Left writings on politics, ethics, logic, biology, literature, and other subjects When the first European universities evolved some 1,500 years later, their courses were largely based on his works </li> <li> 12. Architecture and Art Greek architects sought to convey a sense of perfect balance to reflect the harmony and order of the universe Most famous example of Greek architecture--the Parthenon---temple dedicated to Athena--located on top of the Acropolis </li> <li> 13. Parthenon </li> <li> 14. Parthenon </li> <li> 15. Architecture and Art By 450 B.C., Greek sculptors had developed a new style that emphasized natural poses Sculptors carved gods, goddesses, athletes, and famous men in a way that showed individuals in their most perfect, graceful form The only Greek paintings to survive are on vases and other pottery </li> <li> 16. Poetry and Drama Greek plays took two forms: tragedies and comedies The first Greek plays evolved out of religious festivals Plays were performed in large outdoor theaters with little or no scenery Actors wore elaborate costumes and stylized masks Greek plays discussed moral and social issues or explored the relationship between people and the gods </li> <li> 17. Poetry and Drama Tragedies---one of the best examples of a Greek tragedy was Antigone written by Sophocles Antigone---explored what happens when an individuals moral duty conflicts with the laws of the state Antigone is a young woman whose brother is killed leading a rebellion. The king forbids anyone to bury his body. When Antigone buries her brothers body anyway, she is sentenced to death. She tells the king that the duty to the gods is greater than human law. </li> <li> 18. Poetry and Drama Comedies---humorous plays that mocked people or customs Comic playwrights sharply criticized society, much as political cartoonists do today </li> <li> 19. The Writing of History The Greeks applied observation, reason, and logic to the study of history Herodotus---Father of History---he visited many lands and collected information from people who remembered the events he chronicled He cast a critical eye on his sources, noting bias and conflicting accounts Standard set for modern historians by Herodotus---the importance of research </li> <li> 20. Herodotus---Father of History </li> <li> 21. The Writing of History Thucydides wrote about the Peloponnesian War and vividly described its savagery and its corrupting influence on all those involved Standard set for modern historians by Thucydides---the need to avoid bias </li> <li> 22. Thucydides </li> </ul>