wh chapter 5 section 2 notes

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  • 1. CHAPTER 5 Section 2
  • 2. Geography of the Greek Homeland Greece is part of the Balkan peninsula, which extends southward into the eastern Mediterranean Sea Mountains divide the peninsula into isolated valleys Beyond the rugged coast, hundreds of rocky islands spread toward the horizon The Greeks who farmed the valleys or settled on the scattered islands did not create a large empire They built city-states cut off from one another by mountains or water Each city-state included a city with its surrounding countryside
  • 3. Balkan Peninsula
  • 4. Balkan Peninsula
  • 5. Geography of the Greek Homeland The seas were a vital link to the outside world The Greeks became skilled sailors carrying cargoes of olive oil, wine, and marble around the eastern Mediterranean They carried Greek ideas and culture and also borrowed ideas from other civilizations and adapted them for their own usage The Greeks expanded upon the Phoenician alphabet---the resulting Greek alphabet became the basis for all western alphabets
  • 6. Greek Alphabet
  • 7. Governing the City-States The Greeks created their own version of the city-state, which they called a polis The city was built on two levels---the acropolis, or high city, was on a hilltop with its great marble temples dedicated to gods and goddesses On flatter ground below lay the walled main city with its marketplace, theater, public buildings, and homes
  • 8. Greek City-States
  • 9. Acropolis
  • 10. Governing the City-States The population of each city-state was fairly small which helped citizens share a sense of responsibility for its triumphs and defeats In the warm climate of Greece, free men spent much time outdoors in the marketplace, debating issues that affected their lives
  • 11. Early Governments Between 750 B.C. and 500 B.C., Greeks evolved different forms of government Monarchy---government in which a king or queen rules and has central authority Aristocracy---rule by a landholding elite class of people Oligarchy---power is in the hands of a small, powerful elite usually from the business class
  • 12. Changes in Warfare Changes in military technology increased the power of the middle class By about 650 B.C., iron weapons replaced bronze ones Ordinary citizens could not afford iron helmets, shields, and swords Phalanx---massive formation of heavily armed foot soldiers Sparta---stressed military virtues and stern discipline Athens---glorified the individual and extended political rights to more citizens
  • 13. Phalanx
  • 14. Sparta: A Nation of Soldiers The Spartans were Dorians who conquered Laconia Laconia lies in the Peloponnesus, the southern part of Greece The invaders turned the conquered peoples into helots, state-owned slaves, and made them work the land Because the helots greatly outnumbered their rulers, the Spartans set up a brutal system of strict control
  • 15. Peloponnesus
  • 16. Sparta
  • 17. Sparta: A Nation of Soldiers The Spartan government included two kings and a council of elders who advised the monarchs An assembly made up of all citizens approved major decisions Conditions for Spartan citizenship: male, native-born Spartan, over the age of 30
  • 18. Sparta: A Nation of Soldiers At the age of 7, boys began training for a lifetime in the military They moved into barracks, where they endured a brutal existence They had a coarse diet, hard exercise, and rigid discipline To develop cunning and supplement their diet, boys were encouraged to steal food but beaten severely if caught At the age of 20, a man could marry, but he continued to live in the barracks for another 10 years and to eat there for another 40 years At the age of 30, after more specialized training he took his place in the assembly
  • 19. Spartan Soldier
  • 20. Leonidas
  • 21. Sparta: A Nation of Soldiers Spartan girls too had a rigorous upbringing Their main job was to produce healthy sons for the army---they therefore were told to exercise and strengthen their bodies Like other Greek women, Spartan women had to obey their fathers or husbands They did have the right to inherit property and sometimes took on the responsibility of running family estates during wartime
  • 22. Sparta: A Nation of Soldiers The Spartans isolated themselves from other Greeks They looked down on trade and wealth, forbade their own citizens to travel, and had little use for new ideas or the arts Other Greeks admired their military skills but didnt imitate their lifestyles Spartans are willing to die for their city, because they have no reason to live
  • 23. Athens: A Limited Democracy Athens was located just north of the Peloponnesus Athenian government evolved from a monarchy into an aristocracy---under the aristocracy Athenian wealth and power grew yet discontent spread among the ordinary people During hard times, many farmers were forced to sell their land to nobles or even had to sell themselves and their families into slavery to pay off their debts As discontent spread, Athens slowly moved
  • 24. Athens---name after Athena
  • 25. Athens
  • 26. Athens
  • 27. Athens: A Limited Democracy Solon, a wise and trusted leader, was appointed the chief official of Athens in 594 B.C. Solon immediately began making reforms outlawing debt slavery, freed those who had been sold into slavery, opened high offices to more citizens, granted citizenship to foreigners, and gave the Athenian assembly more of a say in important decisions Solon also made economic reforms and encouraged the export of wine and olive oil
  • 28. Solon
  • 29. Athens: A Limited Democracy Tyrants---people who gained power by force Tyrants often won support of the merchant class and poor by imposing reforms to help those groups In Gre