wh chapter 4 section 3 notes

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  • 1. Section 3 Notes

2. The Complex Caste System The three pillars of Indian life are the caste system, family, and village Aryans divided society into four classes (you learned this in the previous chapter) Non-Aryans were considered outcasts and held the lowest jobs The caste system ensured a stable social order People could move up castes in the afterlife 3. Aryan Caste System 4. Caste System 5. The Complex Caste System To ensure spiritual purity, a web of complex caste rules governed every aspect of life---where people lived, what they ate, how they dressed, and how they earned a living Rules forbade marrying outside ones caste or eating with members of another caste High-caste people had the strictest rules to protect them from the spiritually polluted lower castes Untouchables---lowest ranked caste---life was harsh--- received the most impure jobs such as digging graves, cleaning streets, or turning animal hides into leather 6. Caste System 7. Castes and Relationships http://edition.cnn.com/2012/10/08/world/india-love- commandos/index.html?hpt=hp_c3 8. Untouchables 9. Untouchables 10. Untouchables 11. Untouchables 12. Untouchables 13. Untouchables 14. The Complex Caste System The caste system ensured a stable social order People could not change their status in this life, but they could reach a higher caste in a future life by fulfilling the duties of their present caste The caste system also adapted to changing conditions, absorbing foreigners and new occupations into their own castes This flexibility allowed people with diverse customs to live side by side in relative harmony 15. Family Life Ideal family was the joint family--- parents, children, grandchildren, uncles, and cousins shared a common dwelling Indian family was patriarchal---the father or oldest male in the family headed the household Arranged marriages were (and still are) common A dowry was paid by the brides family to the grooms family 16. Family Life In early Aryan society, women enjoyed a higher status than in later times By late Gupta times, upper-class women were restricted to their homes Women were thought to have shakti Shakti---creative energy of a woman that a man lacked Positive---helped to make her husband complete Negative---could be destructive if she didnt listen 17. Family Life A womans primary duties were to marry, show devotion to her husband, and raise children Beyond these responsibilities, women had few rights within the family and society Rebirth into a higher existence was gained through devotion to her husband 18. Family Life As customs changed, a high-caste widow was forbidden to remarry Often, a widow became a sati (virtuous woman) This was accomplished by the widow joining her dead husband on his funeral pyre (fire) Some widows accepted this painful death as a noble duty that would wipe out both her and her husbands sins 19. Village Life The village was at the heart of life A typical village included a cluster of homes made of earth or stone Farmers grew crops such as wheat, rice, cotton, and sugar cane Each village included people of different castes who performed the tasks needed for daily life Castes might include priests, landowners, herders, farmers, metalworkers, and carpenters, as well as such low castes as leather workers and sweepers 20. Village Life In most of India, farming depended on the rains brought by the summer monsoons Too much or too little rain meant famine Each village ran its own affairs based on caste rules and traditions A village headman and council made decisions Women at one time were able to serve on the councils but were later restricted and their role in society became virtually non-existent outside of their homes 21. Monsoon Flooding 22. Monsoon Flooding 23. Monsoon Flooding 24. Monsoon Flooding 25. Monsoon Flooding 26. Monsoon Flooding