wh chapter 2 section 1 notes

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  • 1. Section 1 Notes

2. Egypt is wholly the gift of the Nile 3. Farming villages were formed along the Nile River Black Land---narrow band (10 miles) of irrigated land Red Land---Sahara Desert Farmers used the fertile soil of the Nile Valley to grow crops such as wheat and flax The ancient Egyptians eagerly awaited the yearly flooding of the Nile---it brought life-giving water and spread a layer of silt 4. Flooding needed to be controlled Ancient Egyptians used dikes, reservoirs, and irrigation ditches to channel the rising river and store water for the dry season 5. Ancient Egypt had two distinct regions: Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt Upper Egypt stretched from the first cataract of the Nile northward to within 100 miles of the Mediterranean Lower Egypt covered the delta region where the Nile empties into the Mediterranean About 3100 BC, Menes united the two regions---the Nile helped to make Egypt the worlds first unified state and served as the major trade route in Egypt 6. History of ancient Egypt is divided into three main periods Old Kingdom---about 2700BC to 2200BC During the Old Kingdom, Egyptian rulers called pharaohs organized a strong, centralized state Pharaohs claimed divine support for their rule Egyptians believed the pharaoh was a god---the pharaoh thus had absolute power, owning and ruling all the land in the kingdom Vizier---chief minister of a pharaoh who supervised the business of government 7. Under the vizier, various departments looked after tax collection, farming, and the all-important irrigation system The majestic pyramids at Giza were built during the Old Kingdom To complete the pyramids, workers hauled and lifted millions of limestone blocks, some weighing two tons or more. The builders had NO iron tools or wheeled vehicles. Workers quarried the stones by hand, pulled them on sleds to the site, and hoisted them up earthen ramps. Building a pyramid took so long that often a pharaoh would begin to build his tomb as soon as he inherited the throne. 8. Middle Kingdom---about 2050BC to 1800BC The Middle Kingdom was a turbulent period The Nile did not rise as regularly as it had Corruption and rebellions were common 9. New Kingdom---about 1550BC to 1100BC During the New Kingdom, powerful and ambitious pharaohs created a large empire At its height, the Egyptian empire reached the Euphrates River (in Iraq) 10. The most powerful pharaoh of the New Kingdom was Ramses II Between 1290BC and 1224BC, Ramses pushed Egyptian rule northward as far as Syria 11. Nubia was located just to the south of ancient Egypt For centuries, Egyptians traded or fought with their southern neighbor. From Nubia, they acquired ivory, cattle, and slaves. During the New Kingdom, Egypt conquered Nubia. Ramses II used gold from Nubia to pay charioteers in his army