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1 Foundation for Leadership Leadership Behaviors and Styles Participative Leadership Authoritarian Leadership Paternalistic Leadership The use of work-centered behavior designed to ensure task accomplishment. The use of work-centered behavior coupled with a protective employee centered concern. The use of both work- or task-centered and people centered approaches to leading subordinates.

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Foundation for LeadershipLeadership Behaviors and Styles Authoritarian Authoritarian Leadership Leadership Paternalistic Paternalistic Leadership Leadership Participative Participative Leadership LeadershipThe use of work-centered behavior designed to ensure task accomplishment. The use of work-centered behavior coupled with a protective employee centered concern. The use of both work- or taskcentered and people centered approaches to leading subordinates.

LeaderSubordinate InteractionsAuthoritarian Leader

Subordinate

Subordinate

Subordinate

One-way downward flow of information and influence from authoritarian leader to subordinates.Adapted from Figure 131: LeaderSubordinate InteractionsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin

2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reser

LeaderSubordinate InteractionsPaternalistic Leader

Subordinate

Subordinate

Subordinate

Continual interaction and exchange of information and influence between leader and subordinates.Adapted from Figure 131: LeaderSubordinate InteractionsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin

2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reser

LeaderSubordinate InteractionsParticipative Leader

Subordinate

Subordinate

Subordinate

Continual interaction and exchange of information and influence between leader and subordinates.Adapted from Figure 131: LeaderSubordinate InteractionsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin

2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reser

The Managerial GridConcern for People/RelationshipsHig h

1,9 Management Style Thoughtful attention to needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo

9,9 Management Style Work accomplishment is from committed people; interdependence through a common stake in organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect

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5,5 Management Style Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level 1,1 Management Style Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization membership1 Low 2 3 4

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Low

9,1 Management Style Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interface to a minimum degree5 6 7 8 9 High

1

2

Concern for Production/Task

Adapted from Figure 132: The Managerial GridMcGraw-Hill/Irwin

2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reser

Leadership in the International ContextHow do leaders in other countries attempt to direct or influence their subordinates? Are their approaches similar to those used in the United States?Research shows that there are both similarities and differences most international research on leadership has focused on Europe, East Asia, the Middle East, and developing countries such as India, Peru, Chile, and Argentina.

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Leadership in the International ContextAttitudes of European Managers Toward Leadership PracticesCapacity for Leadership and Capacity for Leadership and Initiative Initiative European managers tend to use a participative approach. Researchers investigated four areas relevant to leadership.

Does the leader believe that employees prefer to be directed and have little ambition? (Theory X)

ORDoes the leader believe that characteristics such as initiative can be acquired by most people regardless of their inborn traits and abilities? (Theory Y)

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Leadership in the International ContextAttitudes of European Managers Toward Leadership PracticesCapacity for Leadership and Capacity for Leadership and Initiative Initiative Sharing Information Sharing Information and Objectives and Objectives Most evidence indicates European managers tend to use a participative approach. Researchers investigated four areas relevant to leadership.

Does the leader believe that detailed, complete instructions should be given to subordinates and that subordinates need only this information to do their jobs?

ORDoes the leader believe that general directions are sufficient and that subordinates can use their initiative in working out the details?

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Leadership in the International ContextAttitudes of European Managers Toward Leadership PracticesCapacity for Leadership and Capacity for Leadership and Initiative Initiative Sharing Information Sharing Information and Objectives and Objectives Participation Participation Most evidence indicates European managers tend to use a participative approach. Researchers investigated four areas relevant to leadership.

Does the leader support participative leadership practices?

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Leadership in the International ContextAttitudes of European Managers Toward Leadership PracticesCapacity for Leadership and Capacity for Leadership and Initiative Initiative Sharing Information Sharing Information and Objectives and Objectives Participation Participation

Most evidence indicates European managers tend to use a participative approach. Researchers investigated four areas relevant to leadership. Does the leader believe that the most effective way to control employees is through rewards and punishment?

ORDoes the leader believe that employees respond best to internally generated control?

Internal Control Internal Control

Leadership in the International ContextAttitudes of European Managers Toward Leadership PracticesThe Role of Level, Size, and Age on European Managers Attitudes Toward Leadership

Higher-level managers tend to express more democratic values than lower-level managers in some countries in other countries, the opposite was true Company size tends to influence the degree of participativeautocratic attitudes Younger managers were more likely to have democratic values when it came to capacity for leadership and initiative and to sharing information and objectives

Leadership in the International ContextAttitudes of European Managers Toward Leadership PracticesConclusion About European Leadership Practices

Most European managers tend to reflect more participative and democratic attitudes but not in every country Organizational level, company size, and age seem to greatly influence attitudes toward leadership Many of the young people in this study now are middle-aged European managers in general are highly likely to be more participative than their older counterparts of the 1960s and 1970s

Differences in Middle Eastern and Western Management

Adapted from Table 135: Differences in Middle Eastern and Western Management

Differences in Middle Eastern and Western Management

Adapted from Table 135: Differences in Middle Eastern and Western Management

Management and working styles 1JAPANgeneralists promotion by seniority conflict is solved privately people-oriented long-term planning informal communication decision by consensus interdependencySummary

WESTspecialists promotion by performance conflict is solved in public task-oriented short-term planning formal communication decision by majority interdependency is viewed sceptically

Management and working styles 2JAPANreciprocal commitment between managers and workers open-plan offices formalized and ritualized interactions intuitive, nonverbal communication is important face-to-face communication more importantSummary

WESTless bonds working space is structured according to individual needs informal interactions more common analytical, logical argumentation style written communication more important

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Leadership Styles Each of the leadership styles has advantages and disadvantages. Usually a good leader is a combination of several of these styles. You must tailor your personal leadership style to fit each situation. The coercer style is especially effective during a wartime situation when the command is in combat or under fire. However, this style of leadership can have some negative effects if the command, work center, or individual is performing at a high rate of efficiency. Subordinates will not respond well to the repeated use of threats during normal situations. You might find the authoritarian leadership style useful when seeking information on a particular situation or before inspections. However, it is normally not a good style to use in personal counseling sessions. This leadership style doesnt allow enough flexibility to provide alternative solutions to subordinates personal problems. Using this style by jumping in and taking over in situations when you have technically competent workers is counterproductive. 3-16

DIFFERENT COUNTRIESRussia -authority is clearly centred at the top and strikes are illegal Trade Unions in Russia appear to serve the employer (state) rather than the workforce and the attempt to set up a free (unofficial) trade union for representation of the actual workforce has been countered by repression.

Spain Not so long ago the authority in Spain was clearly centred at the top and strikes were illegal but the workers did strike and bitter confrontations and struggle developed between workers and employers. This placed Spain pretty close to the completely authoritarian end of the scale where authority is centred at the top and strikes are illegal.

USA The United States is a democratic country and it is more difficult to determine to what extent authority is centred at the top and to what extent it is balanced by the authority of the working population exercising their power through the withdrawal of their labour. The Taft-Hartly Act limits the right to strike, seemingly shifting responsibility for declaring a strike from the factory floor to the union head office. A cooling-off period may be ordered which delays the beginning of a strike by some months, in this way giving management and workers another chance to negotiate an agreement before engaging in open confrontation, giving both sides another chance to avoid large scale national economic damage which could otherwise arise. The relative position of one country with respect to another on the scale seems fairly clear. The right to strike exists and is openly used but the right to strike is limited. Ownership is in private hands rather than in the hands of the state as in Russia and so we place the USA a good bit further towards the participative style of management, roughly just over half of the way along the scale towards participative management

United Kingdom-Hence it would seem in this case that movement along the scale, towards greater freedom to withdraw one's labour, was countered by giving greater power to the union's establishment. One is left with the impression that the style of management moved further towards a more authoritarian style of management, under a supposedly pro-Labour government