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West African Food Composition Table
Table de composition des aliments d´Afrique de l´Ouest
West African Food Composition Table Table de composition des aliments d’Afrique de l’Ouest Barbara Stadlmayr, U Ruth Charrondiere, Victor N Enujiugha, Romaric G Bayili, Etel G Fagbohoun, Babacar Samb, Paulina Addy, Ingrid Barikmo, Fatimata Ouattara, Arne Oshaug, Isaac Akinyele, George Amponsah Annor, Kennedy Bomfeh, Henrietta Ene- Obong, Ifeyironwa Francisca Smith, Ismael Thiam, Barbara Burlingame
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome 2012
THE WEST AFRICAN HEALTH ORGANISATION (WAHO) a specialized Institution of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Bobo-Dioulasso, 01 BP 153 Bobo-Dioulasso 01, Burkina Faso
BIOVERSITY INTERNATIONAL formerly International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Via dei Tre Denari, 472/a, Maccarese, Rome, Italy
THE FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS (FAO) Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy
THE INTERNATIONAL NETWORK OF FOOD DATA SYSTEMS (INFOODS) Secretariat at FAO Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy
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Table of contents Acknowledgements iv Introduction v Food groups v Definition and expression of nutrients
Cooked foods vi ix
Documentation, quality and source of data xi Recommendations for future work xi Food Composition Table 1 Annex 1 Index of foods with English, French, Scientific names, and corresponding reference sources 88 Annex 2 Index of foods with French, English, Scientific names and corresponding reference sources 111 Annex 3 Table of Yield factors with corresponding reference sources
Acknowledgments The authors are very grateful to the West African Health Organization (WAHO/ECOWAS) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) for providing fundings for this compilation. We are also grateful to Florian Stangl for the cover design, and to him and Ruth Charrondiere to provide photos for the cover.
Introduction This edition of the West African Food Composition Table is a revised version of the Food composition table `Composition of Selected foods from West Africa`, which was published in September 2010. It extends and updates the number of foods and values of components through data derived from the Mali Food Composition Table 2004, Nigeria, as well as analytical data from scientific articles. The foods represent average values of the collected compositional data from 9 countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal). Data sources included scientific papers, theses, university reports, as well as food composition databases. These data were supplemented by other sources of food composition data (mostly from outside Africa) to complete the missing values, especially minerals and vitamins. It was intended to have no missing values but for some vitamins, especially vitamin A and E, data were not available and no sources were found from which to derive reliable data. In these cases, they were left blank. Most of the collected data were for raw foods. Nutrient values of cooked foods (mainly boiled foods) were calculated by using the yield factors from Bergström (1994), Food Standards Agency (2002 – UK6) and Bognár (2002) and the nutrient retention factors from EuroFIR (Vásquez-Caicedo et al., 2008). The present edition includes 472 foods and 28 components. Emphasis was given to include data on food biodiversity by incorporating cultivars/varieties and underutilized foods. For these foods, the country of origin of the cultivar/variety was reported, next to the food name. Analytical data were supplemented with data from other sources which are marked in italics to indicate the difference of quality. The data were compiled according to international standards for food composition and compilation by using the INFOODS food component identifiers (Klensin et al., 1989), the FAO/INFOODS Compilation Tool (available at http://www.fao.org/infoods/software_en.stm) and the compilation process as outlined by Greenfield and Southgate (2003). The User database in Excel format is available on the FAO/INFOODS webpage (http://fao.org/infoods/directory_en.stm).
Food groups The foods have been classified in the following food groups:
01 Cereals and their products 02 Starchy roots, tubers and their products 03 Legumes and their products 04 Vegetables and their products 05 Fruits and their products 06 Nuts, seeds and their products 07 Meat, poultry and their products 08 Eggs and their products 09 Fish and their products 10 Milk and their products 11 Fat and oils 12 Beverages 13 Miscellaneous
The food codes are composed of the code of the food group and the food code within this group. Foods are listed alphabetically by English name within each food group. The French name of each food is reported next to the English food name in the table. The scientific names of the foods are listed in Annexes 1 and 2.
Definition and expression of nutrients All values, including for beverages and other liquids, are presented per 100 g edible portion. The values per nutrient have been standardized and are expressed in fixed maximal number of decimal points, i.e. no decimal points were added but values with higher decimal points were truncated to the maximal number of decimal points as indicated in the COMPONENT sheet of the Compilation Tool. The values reported are average values derived from foods with the same/similar description that have been compiled in the archival database. Table 1. Nutrients, units and corresponding INFOODS component identifier (per 100 g edible portion) Nutrient Unit Analytical/determination method INFOODS
Edible portion ratio Calculated as the edible portion of the total food as purchased
Energy kJ, kcal Calculated according to standardized procedure (see below)
Water g Drying WATER Protein, total g Calcul