week 2 science vs pseudoscience

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  • 1. ANT 102, August 29th Todays topic:How does archaeology differ from pseudo-archaeology? science and pseudo-science
  • 2. Archaeology is Scientific, Pseudo-archaeology is notScience is a method --for bringing our ideas about the world more closely in line with how the actual world is. --used to answer questions or solving problems
  • 3. Archaeology is Scientific, Pseudo-archaeology is notScience is a method --for bringing our ideas about the world more closely in line with how the actual world is. --used to answer questions or solving problems1. Ask a question or Why was the causeway betweendefine a problem Uci and Cansahcab built?2. Create a hypothesis as To improve commerce andan answer to the problem transportation in the region3. State testable expectationsfor the hypothesis
  • 4. Archaeology is Scientific, Pseudo-archaeology is notScience is a method --for bringing our ideas about the world more closely in line with how the actual world is. --used to answer questions or solving problems1. Ask a question or Why was the causeway betweendefine a problem Uce and Cansahcab built?2. Create a hypothesis as To improve commerce andan answer to the problem transportation in the region3. State testable expectations If it was built for commercefor the hypothesis people living next to it should get rich4. Gather data to see if the Excavate a village next to thetest expectations are met causeway, assess standard of living5. Evaluate the hypothesis Low standard of living (very few pots), hypothesis wrong6. Repeat steps 2 to 5, usinga new hypothesis MULTIPLE HYPOTHESES
  • 5. What can we do to evaluate the trustworthiness of information?Think critically about the source of information Barry Fell, Harvard marine biologist
  • 6. What can we do to evaluate the trustworthiness of information?Think critically about the source of informationIs it repeatable? Can you check the information yourself? Plane
  • 7. Were the pyramids built as a map of the stars?Graham Hancock Khufu Khafre Menkaure
  • 8. Were the pyramids builtas a map of the stars?
  • 9. Science is self-correcting --Because there are other people out there who can check what you are doing --Because the datathe archaeolgical recordcan prove you wrong So, archaeologists must be humble, must be ready to admit being wrongYou almost never find all or only what you expect. As often as not, the process of inquiryforces you to rethink your questions, to envision possibilities that are very different fromany of the prospective answer you might have entertained at the outset. As enigmatic andfragmentary as it is, the archaeological record has infinite capacity to surprise, to subverteven our most confident presuppositions about what must have been the case and why. --Alyson Wylie
  • 10. Coba CaracolMaya cities that werelargely abandoned inthe 9th cnetury AD. Calakmul Ek Balam
  • 11. Were the pyramids built as a map of the stars, 1200 years ago? OR Were the pyramids built as tombs for rulers, 4500 years ago? Cross section of interior of Khufu pyramid)sarcophagus (plural sarcophagi) Text inside the pyramid that says this is Khufus pyramid.
  • 12. Mastaba Stepped pyramid
  • 13. 2611 B.C. 2472 B.C.Saqqara Meidum Bent (at Dashur) Red (at Dashur) Khufu (at Giza) Khare (at Giza)
  • 14. 2611 B.C. 2472 B.C.Saqqara Meidum Bent (at Dashur) Red (at Dashur) Khufu (at Giza) Khafre (at Giza)
  • 15. 2611 B.C. 2472 B.C.Saqqara Meidum Bent (at Dashur) Red (at Dashur) Khufu (at Giza) Khafre (at Giza)
  • 16. 2611 B.C. 2472 B.C.Saqqara Meidum Bent (at Dashur) Red (at Dashur) Khufu (at Giza) Khafre (at Giza)
  • 17. 2611 B.C. 2472 B.C.Saqqara Meidum Bent (at Dashur) Red (at Dashur) Khafre (at Giza) Khufu (at Giza)Saqqara Meidum Bent (at Dashur) Red (at Dashur) Khufu (at Giza) Khafre (at Giza)
  • 18. Luxor, Las Vegas,1993 Memphis, Tennessee 1991
  • 19. 2611 B.C. 2472 B.C.Saqqara Meidum Bent (at Dashur) Red (at Dashur) Khafre (at Giza) Khufu (at Giza)Saqqara Meidum Bent (at Dashur) Red (at Dashur) Khufu (at Giza) Khafre (at Giza)
  • 20. Robert Schoch
  • 21. Mexico Coastal PeruEngland Illinois
  • 22. Science Pseudo-science--is a method --is a set of beliefs disguised as science--is self correcting --no self-correction, just repetition of beliefs--uses full context of evidence --ignores context of evidence--tests hypotheses with new data --no testing, no data gathering--tests are repeatable, verifiable --ignores most evidence--is objective: uses information from the world --uses out of date information--critical about the source of information --relies on mistaken ideas--scientists are flexible, they change ideas --pseudo scientists are inflexible when wrong