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ROLE OF PERFOMANCE APPRAISAL ON IMPROVING TEACHERS ’ JOB
PERFOMANCE: A CASE OF HANANG DISTRCT, MANYARA REGION
TSII, PETER F.
DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULLFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF HUMAN RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT OF THE OPEN UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA
The undersigned certifies that has read and hereby recommends for acceptance dissertation entitled: “Role of Performance Appraisal on Improving Teacher’s Job Performance in Hanang’ District of Manyara Region- Tanzania “in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Masters of Human Resource Management (MHRM) of The Open University of Tanzania.
Dr. Joseph J. Magali
No part of this dissertation may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission by the author or Open University of Tanzania.
I Peter Fita Tsii, do hereby declare that this dissertation is my own original work and that it has not been presented to any other University for a similar or any other degree award.
This dissertation is dedicated to my lovely parents, sisters and brothers especially Sr. Mary Bonaventure of the Catholic Church in Diocese of Mbulu at Manyara, Tanzania as well as my sons known as Leandry Peter, Aloysius Peter for their encouragement and tremendous support that they gave to me throughout this research study, without them it would have been difficult to pursue this course of research methodology or dissertation.
In the course of my studies, I have always left indebted to many persons for their moral and material support and as much I would like to express my innermost heartfelt and sincere gratitude hereunder.
First and foremost I would like to thank the Almighty God for the blessing, for the gift of life and able body that is endowed me during my studies. The fear of Almighty God is the source of knowledge and truly finds northing worth bestowing in return. Also, I wish to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to my mum, dad, family members, friends whose prayers, love and best wishes were a source of inspiration, encouragement, and motivation for me as I was successfully completing this studies.
I would like to extend my special thanks to my brothers and sisters who have endured me throughout this period and financed my studies. I am deeply indebted to my supervisor Dr. Joseph J. Magali who read my drafts copies, listened to my anxieties and whose stimulating suggestions and encouragement helped me throughout the time I was researching and writing this dissertation.
I owe special note of gratitude to Dr. Asubuhi Otieno and Dr. Musa Muneja senior lectures of the University of Arusha, Dr. Mohamed Omary and Kassim Salehe Kimweri from the Open University of Tanzania(OUT), for their assistance, guidance, generosity and advice I received from them throughout this project, and granting me permission to access the participants. Finally, I am extremely thankful to all participants who provided me rich and detailed data for the study and lent breadth and value to the research findings.
This study examined the role of performance appraisal on improving teacher’s job performance systems on teacher’s performance in the public schools. It specifically assesses the teacher’s evaluation and perception on performance appraisal system, knowledge of teachers on performance appraisal system and performance appraisal management that leads to effective teachers’ performance in public primary and secondary schools. This study was used descriptive design in analyzing data from the findings in multiple units of enquiry, also qualitative and quantitative approaches were used in data presentation. Questionnaires, interviews and documentation were the main methods of data collection in which 120 respondents were asked from primary and secondary schools as well as supervisors. Moreover, the data collected were analyzed and processed by using computer software known as Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS.V. 16 .0 ) and the results were indicated clearly on tables and figures. The study assessed and PA for teacher’s and the results revealed that OPRAS implementation at schools is not effective and not very well utilized by the supervisors. The majority of the teachers mentioned that they were not received feedback about (90.0%) were not aware of PA and they lack knowledge of OPRAS in their school organizations. They were not involved in discussing individual performance objectives with supervisors, the evidence was shown from the results that about (54.5%) and they were not given enough time to prepare for the meeting as a result, The current OPRAS system is not used by the government authority for making official decision such as demotion, termination of contract, transfer and promotion in this the response of the respondents is about (86.2%).It was recommended that OPRAS should be implemented effectively to fit a particular organization’ in order to fulfill organizational objectives.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
viiiTABLE OF CONTENTS
xiiLIST OF TABLES
xiiiLIST OF FIGURES
xivLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
11.2 Background of the Study
81.2 Statement of the Problem
91.3 Objectives of the Study
91.3.1 General Objectives
91.3.2 Specific Objectives .
101.4 Research Questions
101.5 Significance of the Study
111.6 Scope of the Study
111.7 Organization of the Study
132.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
132.2 Definitions of the Key Terms
142.3 Critical Review of Supporting Theories
142.3.1 The Expectancy Theory
162.3.2 Herzberg Theory
172.3.3 Mc Gregory’s Theory of X and Y
192.4 Empirical Analysis of Related Studies
192.4.1 Assessment of Performance Appraisal System Worldwide, Africa and Tanzania
312.5 Synthesis and Knowledge Gap in Literature Review
332.6 Conceptual Frame Work
342.6.1 The Context
352.6.2 The Inputs
352.6.3 The Processes
352.6.4 The Products
373.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
373.2 Research Design
383.3 Research Approaches
393.4 Area of the Study
393.5 Target Population
403.6.1 Sampling Procedures
413.6.2 Sample Participants
423.7 Data Sources and Data Collection Methods
423.7.1 Sources of Data
433.7.2 Data Collection Methods
443.8 Validity and Reliability of the Study Instruments
453.9 Data Analysis Procedures
453.9.1 Qualitative Data Analysis
463.10 Variables and Measurements
463.11 Limitations of the Study
473.12 Ethical Consideration
473.12.1 Research Clearance Letter
494.0 DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION
494.2 Demographic Information of the Respondents
494.2.1 Age of the Respondents
514.2.2 Analysis of Gender of Respondents
514.2.3 Academic Qualifications of the Respondents
524.3 Findings According to Specific Objectives
534.3.1 Challenges Facing OPRAS implementation in Schools Organization
544.3.2 Poor Knowledge and Skills of the Respondents
564.3.3 The Working Experiences of the Respondents
584.3.4 Whether the Respondents ever Filled
614.3.6 Feedback and Implementation of Performance Appraisals
634.3.7 The use of OPRAS Implementation by the Government Authority
654.3.8 Leadership Style in Implementation of Performance Appraisal
664.3.9 The Suitable Leadership Style
674.3.10 Level of Trust between Supervisors and Teachers
684.3.11 Involving Teachers in Discussing Individual Performance
704.3.12 whether the Performance Appraisal is Understood to the Respondents or not
704.3.13 The Reasons as Why Teachers do not Understand OPRAS Implementation
725.0 CONCLUTION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
725.2 Summary of Findings
725.2.1 Assessment of the Role of Performance Appraisal on Improving Teacher’s Job
735.2.2 The Challenges Facing Teacher’s Performance Appraisal System
745.2.3 The Evaluation of the Teacher’s Evaluation Systems in Job Performance
755.3 Conclusion of the Study
785.5 The Implications of the Theories with the Study
805.6 Areas of Further Study
LIST OF TABLES
40Table 3.1: Sample Size Composition
50Table 4.1: Age of Respondents
51Table 4.2 Sex of Teacher’s Respondents
52Table 4.3 The Highest Education Level of the Respondents
56Table 4.4: The Challenges which Affecting