weather and climate. weather weather is the state of the atmosphere over a short period of time ie a...
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Weather and Climate
WeatherWeather is the state of the atmosphere over a short period of time ie a dayLook outside and describe todays weather. Is it sunny or cloudy? Hot or cold?
So what are examples of weather?
MistFogCool breezeWarm breezeSnow
ClimateClimate is the state of the atmosphere over a long period of time, ie a yearWhat do you think the climate of Australia is? How about the climate of the Arctic Cirlce?
Australias Climatic RegionsIn Australia we have seven climatic regions, they are:Tropical SavannahTropical MaritimeSemi-aridWarm TemperateMediterraneanAridTemperate Maritime
You will learn more about these soon
Factors affecting climateClimate is caused by 6 main factors:LatitudeAltitudePrevailing WindDistance from SeaOcean CurrentsGreat Mountain Barriers
LatitudeThis refers to the places position in relation to the Equator. Places closer to the equator are generally warmer than places closer to the poles.
The Earth rotates at an angle of 23.5. The Suns rays pass through different thicknesses of atmosphere.
Note: Latitude is relevant!Longitude is irrelevant!
Near the Poles the Suns rays have to pass through thicker atmosphere, so they feel weaker.
Near the Equator the rays pass through a thinner layer of atmosphere, so the sun feels stronger there.
AltitudeLower places (such as valleys) tend to be warmer than high places (such as mountains and hills).
Prevailing WindsThese are the most common winds a place receives. For example, in Winter in Perth the main winds are from the South, and these are cold (from Antarctica). In Summer, Easterlies bring hot air off the desert.
Distance from SeaPlaces on the coast have a milder (not as hot, not as cold) climate than those inland. Coastal places tend to have cooler summers and warmer winters. Compare Rottnest Island with Kalgoorlie.
Ocean CurrentsThese are the movements of the ocean. The temperature of the water affects the amount of rain a place has. Warmer water tends to cause more rain. The water near the equator is warmer so these places have more rain and often cyclones.
Great Mountain BarriersClimate can be different on either side of mountain ranges. Places on the coastal side tend to be wetter and cooler than those on the other side. Place on the dry side of a mountain range are said to be in a rain shadow.