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  • 1

    WASTEWATER AUTOMATION – THE DEVELOPMENT OF A

    LOW COST DISTRIBUTED AUTOMATION SYSTEM

    A Dissertation

    Presented to

    The Engineering Institute of Technology

    by

    Tom Davies

    In Partial Fulfillment

    of the Requirements for the Degree

    Master of Engineering in

    INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION

    APRIL 2017

    COPYRIGHT © 2017 BY TOM DAVIES

  • 2

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    List of Tables ................................................................................................................. 7

    List of Figures ................................................................................................................ 8

    Abstract ........................................................................................................................ 10

    Chapter 1. Introduction ................................................................................................ 17

    1.1 The Problem Statement ................................................................................... 17

    Chapter 2. Background ................................................................................................ 19

    2.1 Moora Waste Water Scheme Overview .......................................................... 19

    2.1.1 Catchment Areas ...................................................................................... 22

    2.1.2 Pump Stations .......................................................................................... 22

    2.1.3 Pump Station Components ....................................................................... 24

    2.1.3.1 Switchboard ................................................................................ 24

    2.1.3.2 Programmable Logic Controller ................................................. 25

    2.1.3.3 Alarm Dialler .............................................................................. 25

    2.1.4 Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) .................................................... 26

    2.2 Scheme Geography ......................................................................................... 26

    2.2.1 Topology .................................................................................................. 27

    2.2.2 Topography .............................................................................................. 31

    Chapter 3. TheProblem ................................................................................................ 35

    3.1 The Existing Problem ..................................................................................... 35

    3.2 Problem Frequency and Cost .......................................................................... 36

    3.2.1 Pump Station 3 Data ................................................................................ 37

    3.3 Legislation....................................................................................................... 39

    3.3.1 Regulatory Bodies .................................................................................... 39

    3.3.1.1 Economic Regulation Authority (ERA) ..................................... 39

    3.3.1.2 Department of Water (DoW) ...................................................... 39

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    3.3.1.3 Department of Health (DoH) ...................................................... 39

    3.3.1.4 Department of Environmental Regulations (DER) ..................... 39

    3.3.2 Prosecutions & Penalties.......................................................................... 40

    3.3.3 Sewage Incidents ..................................................................................... 41

    Chapter 4. Method ...................................................................................................... 42

    4.1 Relevant Scholarship ...................................................................................... 43

    4.2 Requirements .................................................................................................. 43

    4.2.1 Alarms Proposed ...................................................................................... 43

    4.2.2 Parameters ................................................................................................ 44

    4.2.3 Pump current ............................................................................................ 44

    4.2.4 Constraints / Factors ................................................................................ 44

    4.2.5 In-house Installation Considerations........................................................ 44

    4.3 Objectives ....................................................................................................... 45

    4.3.1 Benefit to public ....................................................................................... 45

    4.3.2 Cost savings ............................................................................................. 45

    4.3.3 Staff Knowledge ...................................................................................... 45

    4.4 Comparison of Possible Solutions .................................................................. 45

    4.4.1 Possible Vendors / Suppliers ................................................................... 46

    4.4.1.1 External Engineering Contractors ............................................... 46

    4.4.1.2 Internet of Things........................................................................ 47

    4.4.1.3 ZigBee Mesh Network ................................................................ 48

    4.4.1.4 Schneider .................................................................................... 49

    4.4.1.5 Automation IT Oleumtech .......................................................... 50

    4.4.1.6 Automation IT – ZigBee + 3G Modems ..................................... 51

    4.4.1.7 Automation IT – ZigBee RTUs .................................................. 52

    4.4.1.8 Auto Control Systems – Burkert ................................................. 52

    4.4.1.9 NHP – Ewon ............................................................................... 53

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    4.4.2 Quantitative Comparison ......................................................................... 54

    4.4.3 Outcome of Comparison .......................................................................... 58

    Chapter 5. ZigBee- Critical Analysis ........................................................................... 59

    5.1 The ZigBee Standard ...................................................................................... 59

    5.1.1 ZigBee Wireless Network ........................................................................ 60

    5.1.1.1 Power Consumption & Data Rate ............................................... 63

    5.1.1.2 Factors Degrading RSSI ............................................................. 64

    5.1.2 Fresnel Zone............................................................................................. 64

    5.1.3 Preliminary ZigBee Security Risk Assessment ....................................... 65

    5.1.3.1 Wastewater Security ................................................................... 67

    5.1.3.2 Network Security Risk Analysis ................................................. 68

    5.1.3.3 Attack Types ............................................................................... 70

    5.1.3.4 Results ......................................................................................... 72

    5.1.3.5 Conclusion .................................................................................. 74

    5.2 Site Surveys .................................................................................................... 75

    5.2.1 Signal Strength ........................................................................................ 75

    5.2.1.1 Signal Strength Survey Configuration ........................................ 75

    5.2.1.2 Site Survey Results ..................................................................... 77

    5.2.1.3 Site Survey Conclusion ............................................................... 78

    5.2.2 Security Survey ........................................................................................ 78

    5.3 Component Configuration .............................................................................. 80

    5.3.1 Component List ........................................................................................ 81

    5.3.1.1 Central Station Components ....................................................... 81

    5.3.1.2 Pump Station Component List .................................................... 81

    5.3.2 Component Descriptions .......................................................................... 82

    5.3.2.1 Network Controller ..................................................................... 82

    5.3.2.2 Modbus Gateway ........................................................................ 83

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    5.3.2.3 Remote End Units ...................................................................... 83

    5.3.2.4 Antennas ........................................................

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