Waste & Waste Management
Post on 05-Jan-2016
DESCRIPTIONWaste & Waste Management. Definition. UU 18/2008 Sampah adalah sisa kegiatan sehari-hari manusia dan / atau proses alam yang berbentuk padat. The European Union waste is an object the holder discards, intends to discard or is required to discard. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
*Waste & Waste Management
Definition UU 18/2008 Sampah adalah sisa kegiatan sehari-hari manusia dan / atau proses alam yang berbentuk padat.
The European Union waste is an object the holder discards, intends to discard or is required to discard.
Basel Convention: "Substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of international law" (Basel Convention).
United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD): "Wastes are materials that are not prime products (that is products produced for the market) for which the generator has no further use in terms of his/her own purposes of production, transformation or consumption, and of which he/she wants to dispose.
Wastes may be generated during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, and other human activities. Residuals recycled or reused at the place of generation are excluded." 
WasteWaste Management.pptdirectly linked to human development,
WASTE & POPULATION
Waste is sometimes a subjective concept
Waste Generation RateIncome Generation Rate Waste Quantity* Level kg / capita / day tons / day Low 0.5 500 Middle 0.7 700 High 1.6 1,600
* Assumed population 1.0 million.
Composition & Moisture Content Income LevelMaterialLow Middle High
Food40-85% 20-65%20-50%Paper 1-10% 15-40%15-40%Recyclables 4-25% 5-26%11-43%Fines15-50% 15-50% 5-20%
Moisture 40-80% 40-60%20-30%
More biomass organics / moisture beneficial to LFG and composting projects not favorable for combustion and thermal technologiesMoisture higher precipitation more rapid decomposition - - IPCC: > 1,000 mm / yr.
Solid Waste Composition in Bangkok2006 data
Rubber & Leather, 1.03%
Plastic & Foam26.47%
Bone & Shell0.92%
Rubber & Leature1.03%
*/22Classification of WasteGeneratorPropertyAspectHouseholdsIndustriesChemicalPhysicalHazard potentialOrganicAnorganicSolidLiquidGaseousIgnitableCorrosiveReactiveToxic
EFFECTS OF WASTE IF NOT MANAGED WISELY
Affects our healthAffects our socio-economic conditionsAffects our coastal and marine environmentAffects our climate
*EFFECTS OF WASTE
GHGs are accumulating in Earths atmosphere as a result of human activities, causing global mean surface air temperature and subsurface ocean temperature to rise.
Rising global temperatures are expected to raise sea levels and change precipitation and other local climate conditions.
Changing regional climates could alter forests, crop yields, and water supplies.
This could also affect human health, animals, and many types of ecosystems.
*Effects of waste.Activities that have altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere:
Buildup of GHGs primarily carbon dioxide (CO2) methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N20).
C02 is released to the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels, wood and wood products, and solid waste.
CH4 is emitted from the decomposition of organic wastes in landfills, the raising of livestock, and the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil.
N02 is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as well as during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels. In 1977, the US emitted about one-fifth of total global GHGs.
Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2000, US EPA, Office of Atmospheric Programs, April 2002 EPA 236-R-02-003.
WHAT SHOULD BE DONE ?? We need waste management
EARLY CONCEPTS OF WASTE DISPOSALThe traditional dilute and disperse approach to waste disposal is inadequate, given current population densities and levels of waste production.
While concentrating and containing waste is an improvement over the old approach, containment is difficult to achieve.
Though huge, the worlds largest landfills will be full relatively quickly.
The waste disposal problem is a function of a large and growing waste volume and limited disposal space.
MODERN TRENDSDisposal is not the only problem with waste; disposed wastes represent underutilized resources.Industrial ecology considers waste as resources out of place; this type of thinking encourages recycling and reuse, and thus reduce disposal and associated waste problems.The zero waste movement seeks to eliminate discharges to the environment.Many waste management techniques present a risk to public health, pose a nuisance, or merely move the waste from one site (or environmental medium) to another.
INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT New strategies today focus on integrated waste management (IWM), emphasizing source reduction, reuse, recycling, composting, landfilling, and incineration.
Waste Management Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health. Waste management can involve solid, liquid, or gaseous substances with different methods of disposing with for each.
The Waste Management Hierarchy
The waste hierarchy sets out the main methods for managing waste
The preferred option is waste minimisation or reduction
The next best option is re-use
Recycling or composting come next
Recovering value by other means follows on
Landfilling comes last
Basic Thought Process of Reducing Waste (From "Osaka City General Waste Management Basic Plan" )
1ReduceThe amount of waste generated in each of the production, distribution and consumption stages of a product must be minimized as much as possible.
2ReuseReuse many times over items that are reusable, such as returnable bottles.
3RecyclingOnce a product is beyond practical use or sentimental value, it is important to promote recycling as a means of reducing waste generation.
4ThermalrecyclingWhen waste cannot be reused, burn it and use the heat.
5Appropriate treatmentItems which have been through the preceding efforts and must be discharged as waste must be treated and handled so as to minimize the burden it places on environment.
Waste from Cleaning Public Spaces
RecyclingThese recyclable resources are sent to private manufacturers and used for materials of various products.
Sorting The collected recyclable waste is carried to places such as Tsurumi Recyclable Resources Sorting Center.
4.Reclamation 3.Unloading 1.Loading 2.Transporting
Waste16 June 2010Waste Management.ppt*Municipal solid wastePaperYard trimmingsFood scrapsPlasticsMetalsTextiles, leather, rubberWoodGlassmore
WasteMinimizing Municipal solid wasteMinimizing packagingRecycleablePaper, plastics, metals, glass, wood Reusable ? Textiles, leather, rubber, metals, woodCompostableYard trimmings, food scraps (vegetable) 16 June 2010Waste Management.ppt*
Waste ManagementHistoricalDumpDump and burn Air & water pollutionSmellsHealth Salvage16 June 2010Waste Management.ppt*
Waste Management16 June 2010Waste Management.ppt*Modern disposalSanitary landfillsClay & plastic liners, Soil coverLeachate collectionMethane recoveryUse for home heatingGroundwater monitoring
Waste ManagementModern disposalIncinerators Disposal & Electrical generation 16 June 2010Waste Management.ppt*
Waste ManagementReduce PackagingYard wasteCompostingReuse Clean & refillOld green Coke bottlesRecycle16 June 2010Waste Management.ppt*
CompostingReduce yard waste by compostingGrass clippingsAutumn leavesVegetable scraps Egg shellsDecompose to humusSpread on flower & vegetable gardens16 June 2010Waste Management.ppt*
Recycling16 June 2010Waste Management.ppt*Collection & processingRecycling centersCurbside recycling Materials recovery facilitiesRemanufactureConsumer purchase
Recycling16 June 2010Waste Management.ppt*Incentives to recycleDoing the right thingConvenienceFinancial
RecyclingIncentives to recycleFinancial incentive Bottle bills 11 States only Drink cans, bottles onlyRecycling aluminum can saves 95% of energy to make a new can from Al ore.16 June 2010Waste Management.ppt*
Hazardous wasteCharacteristicsIgnitable or flammableCorrosiveReactiveToxic Household Industrial Both 16 June 2010Waste Management.ppt*
Electronic hazardous wasteGases in cathode ray tubes (CRT)Semiconductor metalsLeadMercuryCadmiumChromiummore 16 June 2010Waste Management.ppt*
Hazardous wasteProper disposal Hazardous waste landfills Surface impoundmentsDeep-well injection 16 June 2010Waste Management.ppt*
Hazardous wasteRadioactive wasteUsed fuel rods from nuclear power plantsDismantled nuclear weaponsRadiation sources from nuclear medicineRadiation treatment for cancer, etc.Yucca Mountain, NV Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, NM16 June 2010Waste Management.ppt*
Hazardous wasteCosts of hazardous waste disposal$$Record keepingIllegal dumping 16 June 2010Waste Management.ppt*
Characteristics of wastesCorrosive: these are wastes that include acids or bases that are capable of corroding mental containers, e.g. tanks Ignitability: this is waste that can create fires under certain condition, e.g. waste oils and solventsReactive: these are unstable in nature, they cause explosions, toxic fumes when heated.Toxicity: waste which are harmful or fatal when ingested or absorb.
Types of wasteNon Hazardous waste: refuse, garbage, sludge, municipal trash.Hazardous waste: solvents acid, heavy metals, pesticides, and chemical sludgesRadioactive: high and low-level radioactive wasteMixed waste: Radioactive organic liquids, radio active heavy metals. ( Moeller, 2005).
Waste treatment and disposalWaste treatmentIncinerationSolidificationHeat treatment: Chemical treatment
Moeller, D. W. (2005). Environmental Health (3rd ed.). Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press
Waste disposalLandfillsUnderground injection wellsWaste pilesland treatmentIn less developed countries flowing rivers
***2.1.3 Classification of waste********Until the mid-twenty century, most solid waste is garbage, yard waste, news papers, bottle, street sweeping and discarded building materials(Moeller,2005).*