Waste Management_Bhavin Shah_IIM Indore

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<ul><li><p>8/14/2019 Waste Management_Bhavin Shah_IIM Indore</p><p> 1/10</p><p>Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)</p><p>Management</p><p>Bhavin Shah</p><p>IIM Indore</p></li><li><p>8/14/2019 Waste Management_Bhavin Shah_IIM Indore</p><p> 2/10</p><p>Some facts on MSW in Mumbai</p><p>Area of Municipal Corporation: 437 sq.km</p><p>MSW generation: 500 gms in societies | 300 gms in slums</p><p>Total MSW generation: 8000 MT/day</p><p>Biodegradable: 62.44% | Recyclables: 16.66%</p><p>Number of landfills: 3</p><p>Door-to-Door Household coverage : 20%</p><p>Collection Efficiency: 86.2%</p><p>Open Burning of MSW: 16%</p><p>Sources: Faisal Zia Siddiqui, Evaluation of Emmission Load &amp; Energy Potential of MSW in Selected Cities of India, May 2009; MCGM, MSW Proforma, 2009</p></li><li><p>8/14/2019 Waste Management_Bhavin Shah_IIM Indore</p><p> 3/10</p><p>The current state of MSW in Mumbai</p><p>Sweeping</p><p>Area: 1800 km</p><p>No of Sweepers:</p><p>Departmental 12,000</p><p>Contracted 2100</p><p>Collection, Storage &amp; Transportation</p><p>Collection: Through own vehicles &amp;</p><p>contracted vehicles</p><p>Segregation:</p><p>At source at 600 Area Locality</p><p>Managements</p><p>Collected in Segregated &amp; Mixed forms</p><p>Frequency: once/twice/thrice per day</p><p>No of collection points: 6200</p><p>Transportation: 600+</p><p>Processing</p><p>Processing: 100 MT/day (Vermiculture)</p><p>Compost produced: 20 MT/day</p><p>Recycling: This work is given to one NGOGeetanjali industries in K- East and K-West</p><p>ward</p><p>Selling of Compost</p><p>Mostly done by NGOs</p><p>Energy</p><p>Two plants of Bio-methanation, in joint</p><p>venture, with BARC are set up at</p><p>Govendi Centenary Hospital and at</p><p>Deonar abattoir.</p><p>Current State of Privatization</p><p>Sweeping: partially given to NGOs in some areas</p><p>Transportation: 50% private and 50% BMCDoor-to-door collection: 50 % done by private</p><p>agencies</p><p>Processing of MSW: Done by NGOs at Dadar,</p><p>Colaba, Versova and Deonar</p><p>Community collection: BMC and Private</p><p>Sanitary landfilling: Privatised partially</p><p>{ Cost of SWM services in Rupees per capita per year : Rs. 391.55 (approx) }</p></li><li><p>8/14/2019 Waste Management_Bhavin Shah_IIM Indore</p><p> 4/10</p></li><li><p>8/14/2019 Waste Management_Bhavin Shah_IIM Indore</p><p> 5/10</p><p> A public private partnership between the</p><p>municipality and a private agency</p><p> Community based systems with infrastructure</p><p>support from the municipality</p><p> Waste collection, segregation and</p><p>transportation done by the</p><p>municipality/authorized body and processing</p><p>done by a waste to energy plant</p><p>Proposed Alternatives</p></li><li><p>8/14/2019 Waste Management_Bhavin Shah_IIM Indore</p><p> 6/10</p><p> The labour will remain on the payroll of themunicipality while the complete end-to-end processwill be handled by the private agency</p><p> Pros: Collection efficiency is improved</p><p> Cost recovery is higher since the private agency will ensurethat the waste is disposed efficiently</p><p> Better implementation of waste segregation by way ofawareness programs</p><p> Cons: Difficulty in coordinating with labour</p><p> Difficulty in changing the nature of dumping grounds andother infrastructure</p><p>Alternative 1: A public private partnership between the municipality and aprivate agency</p></li><li><p>8/14/2019 Waste Management_Bhavin Shah_IIM Indore</p><p> 7/10</p><p>Encourage community based systems with the help ofNGOs with infrastructure support provided by themunicipality</p><p> Pros: Implementation would be easy since the scale for each</p><p>community would be small Easy to replicate model across different communities</p><p> Segregation would be easy to enforce since it is on a smallerscale</p><p> Cons:</p><p>Strong local leaders required to implement the systemsuccessfully throughout all communities</p><p> Needs to be customized for each area since the demographicsvary for each area</p><p> Accounting issues might arise in cost recovery</p><p>Alternative 2: Community based systems with infrastructure support from themunicipality</p></li><li><p>8/14/2019 Waste Management_Bhavin Shah_IIM Indore</p><p> 8/10</p><p>The cost can be recovered to a large extent if the waste ishanded over to a private waste to energy conversion plant</p><p> Waste can be processed completely by the energy plantresulting in higher efficiency</p><p> Pros:</p><p> Financially attractive alternative as a major chunk of the costcan be recovered by the private plant</p><p> Dumping grounds can be handled by the energy plant onsubsidies from the government</p><p> Municipality handles the collection and transportation</p><p>Energy can be used effectively by small communities around thedumping yard</p><p> Cons: Co-ordination between the 2 parties may create problems</p><p> Initial setup costs will be high</p><p>Alternative 3: Waste collection, segregation and transportation done by themunicipality/authorized body and processing done by a waste to energy plant</p></li><li><p>8/14/2019 Waste Management_Bhavin Shah_IIM Indore</p><p> 9/10</p><p> Alternative 3 seems to be a good option at</p><p>this point of time</p><p> It will help solve twin problems of waste</p><p>disposal and energy generation</p><p> Financially attractive solution in the long term</p><p>Recommendation</p></li><li><p>8/14/2019 Waste Management_Bhavin Shah_IIM Indore</p><p> 10/10</p><p>The cycle begins with the collection ofresidential and commercial waste.</p><p>The waste is then transported toWaste Management landfills forpermanent disposal. This is when theprivate agency takes over.</p><p>1</p><p>Much of this waste, including food,paper and cardboard, is organic in</p><p>nature. Anaerobic bacteria digest</p><p>this organic waste and produce</p><p>methane gas and carbon dioxide as</p><p>natural by products.</p><p>2</p><p>The methane gas is recovered via</p><p>a series of wells drilled into the</p><p>landfill. These wells are connected</p><p>by a common pipe system that</p><p>collects the gas and transports it</p><p>to a nearby compression facility.</p><p>3</p><p>At the compression facility, the landfill</p><p>gas is de-watered, filtered and</p><p>pressurized.</p><p>4</p><p>The gas is piped to an electricity</p><p>generating plant where it is used as fuel</p><p>to turn engines or turbines to generate</p><p>electricity. Landfill gas may also be</p><p>piped offsite to industrial customers foruse as an alternative fuel source.</p><p>5</p><p>To complete the cycle, the electricity is</p><p>delivered via utility transmission lines</p><p>to residential and commercial</p><p>customers.</p><p>6</p></li></ul>


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