walton-vine mealybug p. ficus

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    Vi ne meal ybug, Pl anococcusf cus ( Si gnor et ) ( Hempt er a : Pseudococci dae) ,a Key Pest i n Sout h Af r i can vi neyar ds . ARevi ewVMWal t on* andKL Pr i ngl eDepartment of Entomology andNematol ogy, Stel l enbosch Uni ver si t y, Pr i vate BagX1, 7602Mati eland ( Stel l enbosch) , SouthAfri caSubmtted f or publ i cat i on : March2004Accepted f or publ i cat i on : October 2004Keywords : Pl anococcusf i cus, bi ol ogi cal cont r ol , taxonom, vernacul ar names, morphometri cs, l i f e cycle, hosts, geographi cal

    di s t r i but i on, popul ati ondynamcs, i nt egr at ed pestmanagement

    INTRODUCTIONANDHSTORYOFTHEPESTI NSOUTHAFRCAPlanococcus f i c us ( S i gnor et ) was i ni t i a l l y i dent i f i ed i n t heWestern Cape Province as Planococcus c i t r i ( Ri sso) by J oubert( 1943) , Kr i egl er (1954) andWhi tehead (1957) after i nt r oduct i ont o t he ar ea, probablywth pl ant mat eri al . DeLotto (1975) subse-quentl y i dent i f i ed i t as Planococcusf i cus . Themost r ecent sampl es of the i nsect col l ec ted duri ng 1999/2000were i dent i f i ed asPlanococcusf i c us (Wal ton2003) by I .M M l l ar , Pl ant Pr o t ec t i onResearch I n s t i tu te i n Pretor i a .P f i c us was f i r s t recorded as a pest i n t he Western Cape

    Provinceduri ng1930 ( J oubert 1943) . By 1935Pf i cus had spreadt o t he HexR ver Val l ey andsubsequentl y t o al l ot her maj or grape-producing ar eas ( J ouber t 1943) i n th is Province Kr i egl er (1954)regarded i t as oneof t hemost i mportant pest s of thegrape i ndus-t r y i n SouthAf ri ca. Other pseudococci d speci esrecorded f romvi nes i n t he Western Cape Provi nce i ncl uded Pseudococcusl ongi spi nus ( Targioni ) and Fe r r i s i a malvastra (McDani el ), whi chwere al so i dent i f i ed by I .M Ml l ar (Wal ton 2003), PlantPr ot ect i on Research I n s t i t u te i n Pre to r i a . These have, however,not yet at t ai ned pest status ongrapes l o ca l l y.TAXONOM

    V ne meal ybug, Pl anococcus fi cus ( S ignore t ) , i s a key pest i n vi neyards i n the Western Cape and North-WestProvi nces of SouthAfri caandmore recentl y i n theUSAThi s pest was f i r s t reportedi n theWesternCape Provi ncei n1943 Thetaxonomy and i dent i f i cat i on of t h i s speci es aremaded i f f i c u l t by compl ex sl i de-mounti ngtechni quesand the l ack of qual i t at i ve char a ct er i s t i cs . V nemeal ybug i s pol yphagouswth awde rangeof host pl ants . Pf i cuscauses di rect cropl oss due to desiccati on of bunches i n the case of wne grapes and unsi ghtl y honeydewexcreti ononbunches i n the case of t abl e grapes . Hgh i nf estat i ons of P, f i cus cancause earl y l eaf l oss and resul tant weaken-i ng of vines . V nemeal ybugal sovectors the vi ne l eaf ro l l vi rus Thi spest i s currentl y control l edusi ngchemcal , bi o-l ogi cal and cul tural control techni ques i n an i ntegratedpest-management systemThi s systemel i es on the useofpheromoneandphysi cal moni tori ngtechni ques, whi chprovide i nformati onon i nf es ta t i on l evel s .

    Current StatusThemost r ecent cl as si f i cat i onwas done byBen-Dov (1994) whopl acedP f i cus i n t he Order Hemptera, Suborder Homoptera,Superfaml yCoccoideaandFaml y Pseudococci dae The speci eswas wel l descri bedbyDeLotto ( 1975) , Cox (1981, 1989), and

    *Cor r espondi ng author: E-mai l addr ess: vaughn@un ac. za

    Wl l i am&ranaradeWl l i nk (1992) . Keys f or t he adul t femaleof t h i s speci es were gi ven i n Wl l i am &Moghaddam(1999)( I ran ) , Wl l i am&ranaradeWl l i nk (1992) ( Cent r al andSouthAmeri ca), Cox (1989) (Worl d), Cox&Ben-Dov (1986)(Medi terranean basi n) , andCox&etton (1988) (West I ndi es) .P f i c us was i ni t i al l y descri bed as Coccus v i t i s by Nedzi l ski i(1869) (Cox&en-Dov, 1986) . Licht enste i n (1870) subsequent-l y pl aced th is speci es i n t he genus Dactylopi us (Cox 1989) .Si gnor et (1875) descri bed i t as Planococcusf i cus . Thereaf t er var -i ous synonym were used, many of whi ch were the r esul t ofms i dent i f i cat i on (Ben-Dov, 1994) ( Tabl e 1) .Vernacul ar namesVernacul ar names gi ven byBal achowsky&esni l (1935) i nc l ude`cocci ni gl i a f ar i nosa del l a vi t e' , `cochoni l ha algodeo da vi nha' ,`cot onet de l a vi d' , `gr apevi ne meal ybug and ` l a cocheni l l ef ar i neuse de l a vi gne' . Berl i nger (1977) descri bed P f i cus as t he`Medi terr anean vi ne mealybug , Bodenhei mer (1924) as ' subte r -raneanvinemeal y bug' andDeLotto (1975) as `vi ne meal ybug .BOLOGYMorphometri csCr i t e r i a f or age di s t i nc t i on of t he di f f er ent devel opmental st agesof P f i cus were descri bedby Kr i egl er (1954) . Thi s i nformati onwas used i n st udi es on t he devel opmental bi ol ogy of th is pest(Wal ton, 2003) . Kr i egl er (1954) made use of a combinati on ofcol our , si ze, and ot her characte r i s t i cs t o di s t i ngui sh between t hedi f f er ent st ages . Cer t ai n c r i t e r i a were sel ect ed and ar e presentedi n Tabl e 2

    Acknowedgemnts Theaut hor s wouldl i ke t o t hank t heARCnfr ui tec-N etvoorbi j , Wnetech and t heDFPTor f i nanci al suppor t . Thef i r s t author wasemployed at t heARCnfr ui tec-N ervoorbi j , where someof th i sworkwas completed

    SMr J . Enol . Vi t i c . , Vol . 25, No 2, 200454

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    LE1used f or Pl anococcus f i cus (Ben-Dov 1994) .

    I n a r ecent sur vey ( Wal t on, 2003) , Pf i cus was found t o be t henant meal ybug speci es i n vi neyards i n t he West er n Capei nce of Sout h Af r i ca . Adul t f emal e meal ybugs were approx-matel y4mmn l engt h, s l i g h t l y more t han 2mmde andabout. 5 mmhi ck . The adul t f emal e and i mmat ur e st ages were o v a t e ,pbacked, l i g h t s l a t e- t o f l esh-col oured and cover ed by a f i n e ,hi t e powdery wax s e c r et i o n, whichwas more evi dent on t hest ages . Thebody of t he adul t f emal e was cl earl y segment ednd had a f r i nge of s h o r t , f i nger - l i ke wax f i l ament s ar ound i t s(Kr i egl er, 1954) ( F i g . 1) . Af ter mat i ng, egg sacs cover edt h waxy threads s t a r t e d t o appear .Thi s speci es was easi l y di st i ngui shed f romPs l ongi spi nus,hi chwas about 3mmong, 1 mm de, o v a t e , and yel l ow shr ey i n col our . Adul t f emal es andyounger st ages of t h i s speci esadexcepti onal l y l ong post eri or f i l ament s andnoegg s ac s, a s t h i sci es was ovovi vi par ous ( El - M nshawy, e t a l . 1974) .Ai ngl el t f emal e Fer r i s i a mal vast r a ( McDani el ) , 7 mmong and 4m de w t h a l i g h t orange col our was r ecor ded f or t he f i r s ti me f roma vi neyard i n St el l enbosch ( Wal t on, 2003) and cl earl yf f ered i n morphol ogy fromPf i cus .Pf i cus i s cl osel y related t o P c i t r i . Separ at i on of these twoci es i s based onmnor di f f erences i n t he number andarr ange-ent of gl andul ar duct s of t he derms . Pf i cus has f ewer gr oupsand smal l er ducts t han P c i t r i (De Lotto, 1975) . However , Phas not yet been f ound on vi nes i n SouthAf r i ca

    cycl eegl er ( 1954) st udi ed t he l i fecycl e of P, f i cus i n det ai l .

    opment al st ages studi ed were eggs and f i r s t , second and

    vi ne Meal ybug, a Key Pest i n South Afr i can Vi neyar ds

    S Afr J . Enol . Vi t i c. , Vol . 25, No . 2, 2004

    FI GURE 1Adul t f emal e ( i n di c at e d by arrow a) and mal e ( i n di c a t e d by arrow b)Pl anococcus f i c u s .

    55

    t h i r d nymphal i n s t a r s . I t was f ound t h a t t he mal e charact eri sti csappear ed a f t e r t he t h i r d nymphal i ns t a r and, duri ng subsequentdevel opment , di f f erenti at i on between t he sexes occur r ed . I n t hecase of t he mal e, t he pr epupa was f ol l owed by t he pupa f romwhich t he wnged mal e emerged ( F i g . 1) . Mal es were charac-ter i sed by havi ng l ong f i l ament ous anal setae andnomouthpar t s( Kri egl er 1954) . Theadul t f emal e started rel easi ngpheromones atsexual matur i t y, a t t r a c t i n g adul t mal es f or copul at i on ( H nkens etal . , 2001) . Subsequent t o copul at i on there was a pre-ovi posi t i onper i od, a f t e r whicht he f emal e l a i d eggs i n an egg sacmadeup of

    Synonym Aut hor CommentNe dz i l s k i i ( 1 869 ) ,Coccus v i t i s Li ndi nger ( 1 9 1 2 ) , I n c o r r e c t due t o m s i d ent i f i c at i o n ( Cox&en-Dov, 1986) .Borchseni us ( 1949) True i d e n t i t y unknown

    Dact yl opi us v i t i s L i c h t e n s t ei n ( 1 8 7 0 ) , Mi s i d e nt i f i c at i o n (Cox, 1989)Si gnor et ( 1895)Dact yl opi us f i c u s Si gnoret ( 1 8 7 5 ) ,Borchseni us ( 1949) Type ma t e r i a l l o s t ( Ben- Dov &Ma t i l e - F e r r e r o , 1995) .Dact yl opi us subt err aneus Hempel ( 1901) On r o o t s of c ul t i v at e d grapesPseudococcus f i c u s Fernald ( 1903) Change of combi nat i on

    Fernald ( 1 9 0 3 ) ,Pseudococcus v i t i s Leonardi ( 1 9 2 0) ,Bodenhei mer ( 1924)Pseudococcus c i t r i o d e s F e r r i s ( 1922) NewnamePseudococcus c i t r i Bal achowsky &Mesni l ( 1935) Mi s i d en t i f i c at i o nDact yl opi us f i c u s Bor chseni us ( 1949) Synonymous w t h Pseudococcus c i t r i ( R i s s o )Pl anococcus c i t r o i d e s F e r r i s ( 1950) Change of combi nat i onPl anococcus v i t i s Ezzat &McConnel l ( 1 9 5 6 ) ,Mati l e-Ferrero ( 1984)Pl anococcus f i c u s Ezzat &McConnel l ( 1956) Change of combi nat i onPseudococcus praet ermssus Ezzat (1962) Synonym

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    56TABLE2Morphometri c characte rs f o r di s t i ngui shi ng l i f e stages of Pl anococcus f i c us ( K r i e g l e r , 1954) i n devel opment al bi ol ogy studies .

    f i l ament ous waxy hai rs . Kr i egl er ( 1954) recorded an av

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