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Page 1: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

© 2009 VMware Inc. All rights reserved

Confidential

VMware Customer Support Day

Broomfield, Colorado

March 2, 2010

Page 2: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

2 Confidential

Broomfield Support Day Agenda

10:00 AM Registration

10:30 AM Kick-off

10:45 AM Keynote - Eric Wansong, VP GSS Americas

11:15 AM vSphere Upgrade Best Practices

12:00 PM Lunch - Q&A with GSS Experts

12:45 PM Storage Best Practices

1:45 PM Networking Best Practices

2:45 PM Break

3:00 PM Performance Best Practices

4:00 PM Wrap-up and Give-away

Page 3: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

3 Confidential

VMware Customer Support Day

Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day

Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

Together

Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

Together

Value Add

• Education: VMware Best Practices, Tips & Tricks

• Technical Support Overview

• Certification Offerings

• Product Demos

Customer Feedback- Support Day Topics

Page 4: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

© 2009 VMware Inc. All rights reserved

Confidential

vSphere Upgrade Best Practices

Brian Pope – Install/OS Escalation Engineer, GSS

Page 5: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

5 Confidential

Agenda

Planning

vCenter

ESX/ESXi

VMware Tools / Virtual Hardware

Licensing

Page 6: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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vSphere Upgrade Pre-planning

VMware vSphere Upgrade Center

• Collection of Docs, Videos, Best Practices, New Features, etc.

• http://www.vmware.com/products/vsphere/upgrade-center/resources.html

vSphere Upgrade Guide

• http://www.vmware.com/pdf/vsphere4/r40_u1/vsp_40_u1_upgrade_guide.pdf

Upgrading to ESX 4.0 and vCenter 4.0 Best Practices

• Knowledge Base Article 1009039

vSphere Migration Checklist

• http://vmware.com/files/pdf/vsphere-migration-prerequisites-checklist.pdf

Installing ESX 4.0 and vCenter 4.0 Best Practices

• Knowledge Base Article 1009080

VMware vCenter Install Worksheet

• Knowledge Base Article 1010023

Page 7: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

7 Confidential

vCenter Server

Upgrade components in the following order:

• vCenter

• ESX/ESXi Hosts

• VMware Tools

• Virtual Hardware

vCenter now supported on 64bit OS, however, requires a 32bit DSN

• Knowledge Base Article 1010401

Backup the vCenter Database (should be doing this anyway)

Verify dbo perms on MSDB, VC, and UM DB’s

Allow for any new vSphere required ports

• Knowledge Base Article 1012382

TEST TEST TEST

• Setup a test environment to test critical applications to verify functionality and

performance.

Page 8: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

8 Confidential

ESX 4.0 / ESXi 4.0

vSphere 4.0 offers two GUI-based applications and a script that you

can use to upgrade ESX 3.5 to ESX 4.0:

vSphere Host Update Utility

• For standalone hosts

VMware vCenter Update Manager

• For ESX/ESXi hosts that are managed by vCenter Server

• Use ―Host Upgrade‖ baseline vs ―Host Patch‖ baseline

esxupgrade.sh script

• For Offline Upgrade - ESX 3.x hosts that do not have network access.

Knowledge Base Article 1009440

Several upgrade tools were supported in previous ESX releases and are no longer

supported in the current release. These tools include graphical upgrade from CD, text-

mode upgrade from CD, tarball upgrade using the service console, scripted upgrade from

CD or PXE server by using esxupdate, and scripted upgrade from CD or PXE server using

kickstart commands.

Page 9: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

9 Confidential

ESX 4.0 / ESXi 4.0

VMware ESX 4.0 will only install and run on servers with 64-bit x86

CPUs.

• Known 64-bit processors:

• All AMD Opterons support 64 bit.

• All Intel Xeon 3000/3200, 3100/3300, 5100/5300, 5200/5400, 7100/7300, and

7200/7400 support 64 bit.

• All Intel Nehalem processors support 64 bit.

ESX requires ~15G VMFS volume for Console VM

• The service console must be installed on a VMFS datastore that is resident on

a host's local disk or on a SAN disk that is masked and zoned to that particular

host only. The datastore cannot be shared between hosts.

Upgrading ESXi 3.5 hosts with OEM server vendor’s specific

components to ESXi 4.0

• Knowledge Base Article 1010489

Page 10: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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VMware Tools / Virtual Hardware

Upgrading an ESX 3.x virtual machine to ESX 4.0

• Knowledge Base Article 1010675

VMware tools 4.0 are backwards compatible to 3.x

• Feel free to immediately upgrade VMware Tools. You will still be able to

vMotion to 3.x hosts.

• Snapshot critical VMs in the event tools upgrade is not successful.

• Clone and test VMs to ensure tools and hardware upgrade successfully.

Virtual Hardware version 7 is NOT backwards compatible

• Once upgraded virtual hardware 7 will only run on ESX 4.0. If done before your

host are all at 4.0 you will limit migration capability.

• Virtual Hardware downgrade is NOT supported.

• Only upgrade virtual hardware for specific VM‘s needing the new features.

• Upgrade is a powered off operation.

• A full reboot following VMware Tools install is required before hardware is

upgraded.

Page 11: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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Licensing

vSphere Licensing Information Portal

• http://www.vmware.com/products/vsphere/upgrade-center/licensing.html

• What‘s New in Licensing

• Preparing for Your License Upgrade

• Entitlement Mapping

• Licensing Troubleshooting

Configuring a legacy license server to manage ESX/ESXi 3.x hosts

in vCenter Server 4.0

• http://kb.vmware.com/kb/1010704

Page 12: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

© 2009 VMware Inc. All rights reserved

Confidential

Questions

Page 13: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

© 2009 VMware Inc. All rights reserved

Confidential

Lunch – Q&A

Brian Pope

Install/OS Escalation Engineer

David Garcia

NASA L2 Escalation Engineer

Gerald Camacho

Network Escalation Engineer

Jake McDermott

BCS Engineer

Josh Newton

BCS Engineer

Paul Clark

Storage Escalation Engineer

Paul Hill

System Management Escalation Engineer

Page 14: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

© 2009 VMware Inc. All rights reserved

Confidential

Storage Best Practices

Paul Clark – Storage Escalation Engineer, GSS

Page 15: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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Agenda

Performance

SCSI Reservations

Performance Monitoring• esxtop

Common Storage Issues• Snapshot LUN‘s

• Virtual Machine Snapshot

• iSCSI Multi Pathing

• All Paths Dead (APD)

Page 16: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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Disk subsystem bottlenecks cause more performance problems

than CPU or RAM deficiencies

Your disk subsystem is considered to be performing poorly if it is

experiencing:

• Average read and write latencies greater than 20 milliseconds

• Latency spikes greater than 50 milliseconds that last for more than a few seconds

Performance

Page 17: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

17 Confidential

Performance vs. Capacity comes into play at two main levels

• Physical drive size

• Hard disk performance doesn‘t scale with drive size

• In most cases the larger the drive the lower the performance.

• LUN size

• Larger LUNs increase the number of VM‘s, which can lead to contention on that

particular LUN

• LUN size is often times related to physical drive size which can compound performance problems

Performance vs. Capacity

Page 18: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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You need 1 TB of space for an application

• 2 x 500GB 15K RPM SAS drives = ~300 IOPS

• Capacity needs satisfied, Performance low

• 8 x 146GB 15K RPM SAS drives = ~1168 IOPS

• Capacity needs satisfied, Performance high

Performance – Physical Drive Size

Page 19: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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SCSI Reservations – when an initiator requests/reserves exclusive use of a target(LUN)

• VMFS is a clustered file system

• Uses SCSI reservations to protect metadata

• To preserve the integrity of VMFS in multi host deployments

• One host has complete access to the LUN exclusively

• A reboot or release command will clear the reservation

• The virtual machine monitor users SCSI-2 reservations

SCSI Reservations – Why?

Page 20: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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What causes SCSI Reservations• When a VMDK is created, deleted, placed in REDO

mode, has a snapshot (delta) file, is migrated (reservations from the source ESX and from the target ESX) or when the VM is suspended (Since there is a suspend file written). MEDIUM ERROR – LOGICAL UNIT NOT READY

• When VMDK is created via a template, we get SCSI reservations on the source and target

• When a template is created from a VMDK, SCSI reservation is generated

SCSI Reservations

Page 21: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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• Simplify/verify deployments so that virtual machines do not span more than one LUN• This will ensure SCSI reservations do not impact more than one LUN

• Determine if any operations are occurring on a LUN on which you want to perform another operation• Snapshots

• VMotion

• Template Deployment

• Use a single ESX server as your deployment server to limit/prevent conflicts with other ESX servers attempting to perform similar operations

SCSI Reservation Best Practice

Page 22: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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• Inside vCenter, limit access to actions that initiate reservations to administrators who understand the effects of reservations to control WHO can perform such operations

• Schedule virtual machine reboots so that only one LUN is impacted at any given time

• A power on and power off are considered separate operations and both with create a

reservations

• VMotion

• Use care when scheduling backups. Consult the backup provider best practices information

• Use care when scheduling Anti Virus scans and updates

SCSI Reservation Best Practice - Continued

Page 23: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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• Monitoring /var/log/vmkernel for:

• 24/0 0x0 0x0 0x0

• SYNC CR messages

• In a shared environment like ESX there will be some SCSI reservations. This is normal. But when you see 100‘s of them it‘s not normal.

• Check for Virtual Machines with snapshots

• Check for HP management agents still running the storage agent

• Check LUN presentation for Host mode settings

• Call VMware support to dig into it further

SCSI Reservation Monitoring

Page 24: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

© 2009 VMware Inc. All rights reserved

Confidential

Storage Performance Monitoring

Paul Clark – Storage Escalation Engineer, GSS

Page 25: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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esxtop

Page 26: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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DAVG = Raw response time from the device

KAVG = Amount of time spent in the VMkernel, aka. virtualization

overhead

GAVG = Response time that would be perceived by virtual machines

D + K = G

esxtop - Continued

Page 27: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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esxtop - Continued

Page 28: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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esxtop - Continued

Page 29: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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• What are correct values for these response times?• As with all things revolving around performance, it is subjective

• Obviously the lower these numbers are the better

• ESX will continue to function with nearly any response time, however how well it functions is another issue

• Any command that is not acknowledged by the SAN within 5000ms (5 seconds) will be aborted. This is where perceived disk performance takes a sharp dive

esxtop - Continued

Page 30: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

© 2009 VMware Inc. All rights reserved

Confidential

Common Storage Issues

Paul Clark – Storage Escalation Engineer, GSS

Page 31: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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How a LUN is detected as a snapshot in ESX

• When an ESX 3.x server finds a VMFS-3 LUN, it compares the SCSI_DiskID

information returned from the storage array with the SCSI_DiskID information

stored in the LVM Header.

• If the two IDs do not match, the VMFS-3 volume is not mounted.

A VMFS volume on ESX can be detected as a snapshot for a number of

reasons:

• -LUN ID change

• -SCSI version supported by array changed (firmware upgrade)

• -Identifier type changed – Unit Serial Number vs NAA ID

Snapshot LUNs

Page 32: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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Resignaturing Methods

ESX 3.5

Enable LVM Resignaturing on the first ESX host

Configuration > Advanced Settings > LVM > LVM.EnableResignaturing to 1.

ESX 4

Single Volume Resignaturing

Configuration > Storage > Add Storage > Disk / LUN

Select Volume to Resignature > Select Mount, or Resignature

Snapshot LUNs - Continued

Page 33: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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What is a Virtual Machine Snapshot:

• A snapshot captures the entire state of the virtual machine at the time you take

the snapshot.

• This includes:

Memory state – The contents of the virtual machine‘s memory.

Settings state – The virtual machine settings.

Disk state – The state of all the virtual machine‘s virtual disks.

Virtual Machine Snapshots

Page 34: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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Common issues:

• Snapshots filling up a Data Store

• Offline commit

• Clone VM

• Parent has changed.

• Contact VMware Support

• No Snapshots Found

• Create a new snapshot, then commit.

Virtual Machine Snapshot - Continued

Page 35: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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ESX 4, Set Up Multipathing for Software iSCSI

Prerequisites:

• Two or more NICs.

• Unique vSwtich.

• Supported iSCSI array.

• ESX 4.0 or higher

ESX4 iSCSI Multi-pathing

Page 36: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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Using the vSphere CLI, connect the software iSCSI initiator to the

iSCSI VMkernel ports.

Repeat this command for each port.

• esxcli swiscsi nic add -n <port_name> -d <vmhba>

Verify that the ports were added to the software iSCSI initiator by running the

following command:

• esxcli swiscsi nic list -d <vmhba>

Use the vSphere Client to rescan the software iSCSI initiator.

ESX4 iSCSI Multi-pathing - Continued

Page 37: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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This example shows how to connect the software iSCSI initiator

vmhba33 to VMkernel ports vmk1 and vmk2.

Connect vmhba33 to vmk1:

esxcli swiscsi nic add -n vmk1 -d vmhba33

Connect vmhba33 to vmk2:

esxcli swiscsi nic add -n vmk2 -d vmhba33

Verify vmhba33 configuration:

esxcli swiscsi nic list -d vmhba33

ESX4 iSCSI Multi-pathing - Continued

Page 38: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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The Issue

You want to remove a LUN from a vSphere 4 cluster

You move or Storage vMotion the VMs off the datastore who is being removed

(otherwise, the VMs would hard crash if you just yank out the datastore)

After removing the LUN, VMs on OTHER datastores would become unavailable (not

crashing, but becoming periodically unavailable on the network)

the ESX logs would show a series of errors starting with ―NMP‖

All Paths Dead (APD)

Page 39: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

39 Confidential

Workaround 1

In the vSphere client, vacate the VMs from the datastore being removed (migrate or

Storage vMotion)

In the vSphere client, remove the Datastore

In the vSphere client, remove the storage device

Only then, in your array management tool remove the LUN from the host.

In the vSphere client, rescan the bus.

Workaround 2

Only available in ESX/ESXi 4 U1

esxcfg-advcfg -s 1 /VMFS3/FailVolumeOpenIfAPD

All Paths Dead - Continued

Page 40: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

© 2009 VMware Inc. All rights reserved

Confidential

Questions

Page 41: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

© 2009 VMware Inc. All rights reserved

Confidential

vSphere Networking Overview

David Garcia – NASA L2 Escalation Engineer, GSS

Page 42: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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Agenda

Virtual Switches

Virtual Switch Capabilities

NIC Teaming

Link Aggregation

NIC Failover

New Adapter Types

VLANs

Tips & Tricks

Troubleshooting

Page 43: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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Why Do We Need a Virtual Switch?

Non-Virtualized

Layer 2 Access

switches

Access Ports

(single VLAN

—no tagging)

Per Host

network visibility

from each port

VLAN

Trunks

Distribution

and core

Virtual Switch

Virtualized

Access Ports

(single VLAN

—no tagging)

VLAN

Trunks

L2 Virtual Switch

provides fanout and

policy control to each VM

(consistent with non-

virtualized environment)

Layer 2 Virtual Access

switch

Layer 2

switches

Distribution

and core

VLAN

Trunks

ESX host

Page 44: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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Virtual vs. Physical Network Management

• Separation of Network and Server

provisioning and management systems

• Virtual Center managing & provisioning

ESX hosts and virtual switches

• Physical network managed / provisioned by

existing networking vendor‘s tools and

applications

• Network visibility ends at physical

switch port

• Different interfaces

and tools

• IOS CLI for physical network

• VC GUI and esxcfg cli

for vSwitchesNetwork

Management

Virtual Center

vNetwork Distributed Switch

Page 45: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

45 Confidential

Copyright © 2005 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved.

vNetwork Standard Switch

What is it?

• Virtual network living inside ESX providing

interconnectivity between VMs and the external

physical network via standard networking

protocols (Ethernet)

• Enables many VMs to share same physical NIC

and communicate directly with each other

Standard Networking Features

• L2 Ethernet switching (inter-vm traffic)

• VLAN Segmentation

• Rate limiting - restrict traffic generated by a VM

• NIC port aggregation and redundancy for

enhanced availability and load balancing of

physical network resources (VMware NIC

Teaming)

I/O Features

• Enhanced VMXNET, E1000, VLANCE

• Checksum off-loading, TSO, Jumbo Frames,

NetQueue

• 10GigE, FCoE

• IB (community support)

Page 46: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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vNetwork Standard Switch – Up Close

Port Groups

created for each host

Uplinks (physical NICs)

attached to vSwitch

vNetwork Standard

Switch (vSwitch)

Standard Switch for each ESX host

Virtual Machines

Page 47: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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vNetwork Standard Switch

Virtual Switch

Virtual Machine

Network

W2003EE-32-A W2003EE-32-B

Virtual Switch – Host1

Virtual Switch

Virtual Machine

Network

W2003EE-32-A2 W2003EE-32-B2

Virtual Switch

Virtual Machine

Network

W2003EE-32-A3 W2003EE-32-B3

Virtual Switch

Virtual Machine

Network

W2003EE-32-A4 W2003EE-32-B4

Virtual Switch – Host2 Virtual Switch – Host3 Virtual Switch – Host4

ESX HOST 1 ESX HOST 2 ESX HOST 3 ESX HOST 4

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vNetwork Distributed Switch (vDS)

Aggregated cluster level (and

beyond) virtual network

management

Simplified setup and change

Easy troubleshooting, monitoring

and debugging

Additional features include:

Private VLANs

Bi-directional traffic shaping

Network VMotion

3rd party distributed switch

support

Bundled with vSphere Enterprise

Plus

OS

APP

OS

APP

OS

APP

OS

APP

OS

APP

OS

APP

OS

APP

OS

APP

OS

APP

VMware vSphere™

vNetwork Distributed Switch

Page 49: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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vNetwork Distributed Switch (vDS) - Continued

Production

Network

Service

Console

vmkernel Service

Console

vmkernel Service

Console

vmkernel

Service

Console

1Vmk

1

Service

Console

2

Service

Console

3Vmk

2Vmk

3

ESX Host 1 ESX Host 2 ESX Host 3

vCenter Server

vNetwork Distributed Switch

vDS Representation

A B G H C D I J E F K L

A B C D E F G H I J K L

The Virtual Switch Control

Planes are aggregated

in vCenter Server

The Data Plane remains in each

ESX host and is responsible for

frame forwarding, teaming, etc

DV Port Groups aggregated over

entire vDS and across hosts and

group ports with same

configuration and policy

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vNetwork Distributed Switch: Configuration View

DV Port Groups

span all hosts

covered by vDS

DV Uplink Port Group

defines uplink policies

DV Uplinks abstract

actual physical nics

(vmnics) on hosts

vmnics on each host

mapped to dvUplinks

Page 51: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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vSphere Networking - 3rd Party - Distributed Switch Style

W2003EE-32-A W2003EE-32-B

vSwitch

Single

Distributed

Port

Group

Host1

W2003EE-32-A2 W2003EE-32-B2

Host2

W2003EE-32-A3 W2003EE-32-B3

Host3

W2003EE-32-A4 W2003EE-32-B4

Host4

vNetwork

3rd Party Distributed Virtual Machine Network Single

Distributed

Virtual Switch

3rd Party Distributed

Switch Spanning

Host1, Host2,

Host3, Host4

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vNetwork Appliance API

• Filter driver in vmkernel to provide security features within ESX networking layer

• vNetwork Appliance APIs available to partners

• Clients of this API may inspect/alter/drop/inject any frame on a given port:

• Either directly in the IO path (fast path agent)

• Or by punting frames up to an appliance VM (slow path agent)

• State mobility for data in fast path agent and slow path agent

• Communication between slow path and fast path agents

• Bind to VM‘s vNIC or to dvswitch port

Lightweight filtering

in ―Fast Path‖ agent

Heavyweight filtering

in ―Slow Path‖ agent

Page 53: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

53 Confidential

vNetwork - 3rd Party Virtual Switches – Who does what?

Third Party VSwitch

Roles and Responsibilities vNetwork

Distributed

Switch

vNetwork

(with 3rd Party virtual

switching)

Associate VMs to virtual networks vSphere Admin vSphere Admin

Associate server NICs to virtual networks vSphere Admin vSphere Admin

Create Virtual Switches vSphere Admin Network Admin

Create Port Groups vSphere Admin Network Admin

Modify VLAN Settings (virtual) vSphere Admin Network Admin

Configure NIC Team vSphere Admin Network Admin

Monitors Virtual Network vSphere Admin Network Admin

3rd Party Virtual Switches enable end to end

physical and virtual networking feature parity

Network admins now able to provision and

monitor the virtual network using existing physical

network management tools

Page 54: VMware Customer Support Day Confidential VMware Customer Support Day Welcome to Broomfield’s 3rd Customer Support Day Collaboration bringing VMware Support, Sales & our Customers

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Nexus 1000V & vCenter Server Views

―show interface‖ from Nexus 1000V VSM consoleView from vSphere Client to vCenter Server

―show module‖ from Nexus 1000V VSM console

―access‖ port—assigned

to single VLANVSM

VEM

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vDS Deployment Options

vSS, vDS and Nexus Switches

can co-exist on same host

Network VMotion only required

for Guest VMs

• Optionally leave SC, vmkernel

ports on vSS

• Note: enhanced features only on

vDS

vSS vSS vSS

vSS vSS vSS

vDS

vDS

Partial Migration to vDS

VMs use

vDS

Service Console,

vmkernel ports

remain on vSS

Original Environment Complete Migration to vDS

KB - Migrating virtual machines between vSwitch or PortGroups to vDS or dvPortgroups (1010612)

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vDS Deployment Options - Continued

vSS Cisco Nexus 1000V

Original Environment Complete Migration to Nexus 1000V

vSS vSS vSS vSS vSS

vDS

Multiple vDS

vDSvSS vSS vSS

vDS

Partial Migration to Nexus 1000V

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vDS Deployment Rules

vSS, vDS, Nexus 1000V can co-exist

• Multiple vSS and vDS per host

• Maximum of one Nexus 1000V per host (VEM)

Take note of deployment limits (subject to change!)

• Refer to published limits

pnics (vmnics) can only belong to one virtual switch

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vNetwork Solution Comparisons

VMware

Standard

Switch

VMware

Distributed Switch

Cisco Nexus 1000V

Virtual Network Model Per Host Per ―Datacenter‖ Per ―Datacenter‖

L2 Forwarding YES YES

Cisco Catalyst /

Nexus Features and

Functionality

VLAN Segmentation YES YES

802.1Q Tagging YES YES

NIC Teaming YES YES

TX Rate Limiting YES YES

CDP Support YES YES

vNetwork Appliance APIs YES YES

Datacenter-level management YES

RX Rate Limiting YES

VM Network Port Block YES

PVLAN Support YES

Network VMotion YES

3rd Party Distributed Switch Support YES

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vSphere Networking Summary

• What is it?

• Virtual network (i.e., set of virtual switches) living inside ESX providing interconnectivity between VMs and the external physical network

• Enables many VMs to share physical NICs and communicate directly with each other

• Virtual Networking with vSphere 4

• L2 Switching Features and Management

Cluster level unified virtual network management

Datacenter class features including VLAN, Private VLANs, CDP, RX/TX rate limiting etc.

Built-in availability (NIC Teaming) providing pnicredundancy, availability and load balancing

• vNetwork Platform Extensibility

3rd Party Distributed Switch Support (Cisco Nexus 1000-V)

VMsafe-Net Support

• IPv6 Support (VM, management, VC server)

• vSphere 4 I/O Features

• VMXNET Generation 3 (VMXNET3)

• HW offloading

(Checksum/TSO/LRO)

• Jumbo Frames (VM, NFS and

SW iSCSI)

• NetQueue v2

• VMDirectPath

• 10GigE

• FCoE

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vSphere Networking Best Practices

David Garcia – NASA L2 Escalation Engineer, GSS

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ESX Virtual Switch: Capabilities

Layer 2 switch—forwards frames based

on 48-bit destination MAC address in

frame

MAC address known by registration

(it knows its VMs!)—no MAC

learning required

Can terminate VLAN trunks (VST mode)

or pass trunk through to VM (VGT mode)

Physical NICs associated with

vSwitches

NIC teaming (of uplinks)

• Availability: uplink to multiple

physical switches

• Load sharing: spread load

over uplinks

VM0 VM1

vSwitch

MAC

address

assigned to

vnic

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ESX Virtual Switch: Forwarding Rules

The vSwitch will forward frames

• VM VM

• VM Uplink

But not forward

• vSwitch to vSwitch

• Uplink to Uplink

ESX vSwitch will not create

loops in the physical network

And will not affect Spanning Tree

(STP) in the physical network

VM0 VM1

vSwitch

Physical

Switches

vSwitch

MAC a MAC b MAC c

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Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) Considerations

Spanning Tree Protocol used to create

loop-free L2 tree topologies

in the physical network

• Some physical links put in ―blocking‖ state

to construct loop-free tree

ESX vSwitch does not participate

in Spanning Tree and will not create

loops with uplinks

• ESX Uplinks will not block and always

active (full use of all links)

VM0 VM1

vSwitch

Physical

Switches

MAC a MAC b

Switches sending

BPDUs every 2s to

construct and

maintain Spanning

Tree Topology

vSwitch drops

BPDUs

Blocked link

Recommendations for Physical Network Config:

1. Leave Spanning Tree enabled on physical network and ESX

facing ports (i.e. leave it as is!)

2. Use ―portfast‖ or ―portfast trunk‖ on ESX facing ports

(puts ports in forwarding state immediately)

3. Use ―bpduguard‖ to enforce STP boundary

KB - STP may cause temporary loss of network connectivity when a failover or failback event occurs (1003804)

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NIC Teaming for Availability and Load Sharing

NIC Teaming aggregates multiple

physical uplinks for:

• Availability—reduce exposure

to single points of failure

(NIC, uplink, physical switch)

• Load Sharing—distribute load over

multiple uplinks (according to selected NIC

teaming algorithm)

Requirements:

• Two or more NICs on same vSwitch

• Teamed NICs on same L2

broadcast domain

VM0 VM1

vSwitch

NIC Team

KB - NIC teaming in ESX Server (1004088)

KB - Dedicating specific NICs to portgroups while maintaining NIC teaming and failover for the vSwitch (1002722)

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NIC Teaming Options

Name Algorithm—vmnic

chosen based upon:

Physical Network Considerations

Originating

Virtual Port ID

vnic port Teamed ports in same L2 domain

(BP: team over two physical switches)

Source MAC

Address

MAC seen on vnic Teamed ports in same L2 domain

(BP: team over two physical switches)

IP Hash* Hash(SrcIP, DstIP) Teamed ports configured in static

802.3ad ―Etherchannel‖

- no LACP

- Needs MEC to span 2 switches

Explicit Failover

Order

Highest order uplink

from active list

Teamed ports in same L2 domain

(BP: team over two physical switches)

Best Practice: Use Originating Virtual PortID

for VMs

*KB - ESX Server host requirements for link aggregation (1001938)

*KB - Sample configuration of EtherChannel/Link aggregation with ESX and Cisco/HP switches (1004048)

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NIC Teaming with vDS

Teaming Policies Are Applied in DV Port Groups to dvUplinks

Service

Console

vmkernel

esx10b.tml.local

A B

Service

Console

vmkernel

esx10a.tml.local

A B

esx09b.tml.localesx09a.tml.local

―Orange‖ DV Port Group

Teaming Policy

0

1

2

3

vmnic0 esx09a.tml.local

vmnic0 esx09b.tml.local

vmnic0 esx10a.tml.local

vmnic2 esx10b.tml.local

vmnic1 esx09a.tml.local

vmnic1 esx09b.tml.local

vmnic1 esx10a.tml.local

vmnic0 esx10b.tml.local

vmnic2 esx09a.tml.local

vmnic2 esx09b.tml.local

vmnic2 esx10a.tml.local

vmnic3 esx10b.tml.local

vmnic3 esx09a.tml.local

vmnic3 esx09b.tml.local

vmnic3 esx10a.tml.local

vmnic1 esx10b.tml.local

vDS

vmnic2 vmnic0vmnic1 vmnic3

vmnic0 vmnic1 vmnic2 vmnic3

KB - vNetwork Distributed Switch on ESX 4.x - Concepts Overview (1010555)

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Link Aggregation

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Link Aggregation - Continued

EtherChannel

is a port trunking (link aggregation is Cisco's term) technology used primarily on Cisco switches

Can be created from between two and eight active Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, or 10 Gigabit Ethernet ports

LACP or IEEE 802.3ad

Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) is included in IEEE specification as a method to control the bundling of

several physical ports together to form a single logical channel

Only supported on Nexus 1000v

EtherChannel vs. 802.3ad

EtherChannel and IEEE 802.3ad standards are very similar and accomplish the same goal

There are a few differences between the two, other than EtherChannel is Cisco proprietary and 802.3ad is an open

standard

EtherChannel Best Practice

One IP to one IP connections over multiple NICs are not supported (Host A one connection session to Host B uses

only one NIC)

Supported Cisco configuration: EtherChannel Mode ON – ( Enable Etherchannel only)

Supported HP configuration: Trunk Mode

Supported switch Aggregation algorithm: IP-SRC-DST short for (IP-Source-Destination)

The only load balancing option for vSwitch or vDistributed Switch that can be used with EtherChannel is IP HASH

Do not use beacon probing with IP HASH load balancing

Do not configure standby uplinks with IP HASH load balancing.

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Failover Configurations

• Link Status Only relies solely on the link status provided by the network adapter

•Detects failures such as cable pulls and physical switch power failures

•Cannot detect configuration errors

•Switch port being blocked by spanning tree

•Switch port configured for the wrong VLAN

•cable pulls on the other side of a physical switch.

• Beacon Probing sends out and listens for beacon probes

•Ethernet broadcast frames sent by physical adapters to detect upstream network

connection failures

•on all physical Ethernet adapters in the team, as shown in Figure

•Detects many of the failures mentioned above that are not detected by link status alone

•Should not be used as a substitute for a redundant Layer 2 network design

•Most useful to detect failures in the closest switch to the ESX Server hosts

•Beacon Probing Best Practice

•Use at least 3 NICs for triangulation

•If only 2 NICs in team, probe can‘t determine which link failed

•Shotgun mode results

•KB - What is beacon probing? (1005577)

•KB - ESX host network flapping error when Beacon Probing is selected (1012819)

•KB - Duplicated Packets Occur when Beacon Probing Is Selected Using vmnic and

VLAN Type 4095 (1004373)

•KB - Packets are duplicated when you configure a portgroup or a vSwitch to use a route

that is based on IP-hash and Beaconing Probing policies simultaneously (1017612)

Figure — Using beacons to detect upstream

network connection failures.

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Port Group Configuration

A Port Group is a template for one or more ports with a common configuration

• Assigns VLAN to port group members

• L2 Security—select ―reject‖ to see only frames for VM MAC addr

• Promiscuous mode/MAC address change/Forged transmits

• Traffic Shaping—limit egress traffic from VM

• Load Balancing—Origin VPID, Src MAC, IP-Hash, Explicit

• Failover Policy— Link Status & Beacon Probing

• Notify Switches—‖yes‖-gratuitously tell switches of mac location

• Failback—‖yes‖ if no fear of blackholing traffic, or, …

• … use Failover Order in ―Active Adapters‖

Distributed Virtual Port Group (vNetwork Distributed Switch)

• All above plus:

• Bidirectional traffic shaping (ingress and egress)

• Network VMotion—network port state migrated upon VMotion

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VMXNET3—The Para-virtualized VM Virtual NIC

• Next evolution of ―Enhanced VMXNET‖ introduced in ESX 3.5

• Adds

• MSI/MSI-X support (subject to guest operating system kernel support)

• Receive Side Scaling (supported in Windows 2008 when explicitly enabled

through the device's Advanced configuration tab)

• Large TX/RX ring sizes (configured from within the virtual machine)

• High performance emulation mode (Default)

• Supports

• High DMA

• TSO (TCP Segmentation Offload) over IPv4 and IPv6

• TCP/UDP checksum offload over IPv4 and IPv6

• Jumbo Frames

• 802.1Q tag insertion

KB - Choosing a network adapter for your virtual machine (1001805)

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VMDirectPath for VMs

I/O Device

Device Driver

Virtual

Layer

What is it?

Enables direct assignment of PCI devices to VM

Types of workloads

I/O Appliances

High performance VMs

Details

Guest controls the physical H/W

Requirements

vSphere 4

I/O MMU

Used for DMA Address Translation (Guest Physical

Host Physical) and protection

Generic device reset (FLR, Link Reset, ...)

KB - Configuring VMDirectPath I/O pass-through devices on an ESX host (1010789)

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FCoE on ESX

VMware ESX Support

• FCoE supported since ESX 3.5u2

• Requires Converged Network

Adapters ―CNAs‖—(see HCL) e.g.

• Emulex LP21000 Series

• Qlogic QLE8000 Series

• Appears to ESX as:

• 10GigE NIC

• FC HBA

• SFP+ pluggable transceivers

• Copper twin-ax (<10m)

• Optical

10GigE

NIC

Fibre

Channel

HBA

vSwitch

FCoE

Switch

Fibre

ChannelEthernet

FCoE

CNA—Converged

Network Adapter

ESX

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Using 10GigE

2x 10GigE common/expected

• 10GigE CNAs or NICs

Possible Deployment Method

• Active/Standby on all Portgroups

• VMs ―sticky‖ to one vmnic

• SC/vmk ports sticky to other

• Use Ingress Traffic Shaping

to control traffic type per

Port Group

• If FCoE, use Priority Group

bandwidth reservation

(on CNA utility)

vSwitch

iSCSI NFS VMotion FT SC

FCoE FCoE

SC#2

FCoE

10

FCoE Priority Group

bandwidth reservation

(in CNA config utility)

Gbps10GE10GE

Ingress (into switch)

traffic shaping policy

control on Port Group

1-2G Low b/wHigh

b/w

Variable/high

b/w 2Gbps+

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Traffic Types on a Virtual Network

Virtual Machine Traffic

• Traffic sourced and received from virtual machine(s)

• Isolate from each other based on service level

VMotion Traffic

• Traffic sent when moving a virtual machine from one ESX host to another

• Should be isolated

Management Traffic

• Should be isolated from VM traffic (one or two Service Consoles)

• If VMware HA is enabled, includes heartbeats

IP Storage Traffic—NFS and/or iSCSI via vmkernel interface

• Should be isolated from other traffic types

Fault Tolerance (FT) Logging Traffic

• Low latency, high bandwidth

• Should be isolated from other traffic types

How do we maintain traffic isolation without proliferating NICs?

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VLAN Trunking to Server

IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Tagging

• Enables logical network partitioning

(Traffic separation)

• Scale traffic types without scaling physical NICs

• Virtual machines connect to virtual

switch ports (like access ports

on physical switch)

• Virtual switch ports are associated

with a particular VLAN (VST mode)—defined

in PortGroup

• Virtual switch tags packets exiting host

VM0 VM1

vSwitch

PortGroup

―Blue‖

VLAN 20

Port Group

―Yellow‖

VLAN 10

VLAN Trunks

Carrying

VLANs 10, 20

802.1Q Header

810012-bit VLAN id

field

(0-4095)

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VLAN Tagging Options

vSwitch

Physical Switch

vSwitch

Physical Switch

vSwitch

Physical Switch

VST – Virtual Switch Tagging VGT – Virtual Guest Tagging EST – External Switch Tagging

VLAN Tags

applied in

vSwitch

VLAN Tags

applied in

Guest

PortGroup

set to VLAN

―4095‖

External Physical

switch applies

VLAN tags VST is the best practice and

most common method

VLAN

assigned in

Port Group

policy

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VLAN Tagging: Further Example

KB -Sample configuration of virtual switch VLAN tagging (VST Mode) and ESX Server (1004074)

Uplinks A, B, and C connected to trunk ports on physical switch which carry four VLANs

(e.g. VLANs 10, 20, 50, 90)

Ports 1-14 emit untagged frames, and only those frames which were tagged with their respective VLAN ID

(equivalent to ―access port‖ on physical switch)

• Port Group VLAN ID set to one of 1-4094

Port 15 emits tagged frames for all VLANs.

• Port Group VLAN ID set to 4095 (for vSS) or ―VLAN Trunking‖ on vDS DV Port Group

1310 12 14111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

A C

15

B

VLAN Trunks

Carrying VLANs

10, 20, 50, 90

Access Ports

on VLAN 10Access Ports

on VLAN 20

Access Ports

on VLAN 50

All VLANs

(10,20,50,90)

trunked to

VM

interface GigabitEthernet1/2

description host32-vmnic0

switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q

switchport trunk native vlan 999

switchport trunk allowed vlan 10,20,50,90

switchport mode trunk

spanning-tree portfast trunk

Example

configuration on

Physical Switch

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Private VLANs: Traffic Isolation for Every VM

Solution: PVLAN

• Place VMs on the same virtual network

but prevent them from communicating

directly with each other (saves VLANs!)

• Avoids scaling issues from assigning

one VLAN and IP subnet per VM

Details

• Instead, configure a SINGLE DV port

group to have a SINGLE isolated*

VLAN (ONLY ONE)

• Attach all your VMs to this SINGLE

isolated VLAN DV port group

Distributed

Switch with

PVLAN

Private VLAN traffic isolation

between guest VMs

Common

Primary VLAN

on uplinks

KB - Private VLAN (PVLAN) on vNetwork Distributed Switch - Concept Overview (1010691)

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W2003EE-32-A W2003EE-32-B W2003EE-32-A W2003EE-32-B W2003EE-32-A W2003EE-32-B W2003EE-32-A W2003EE-32-B W2003EE-32-A W2003EE-32-B W2003EE-32-A W2003EE-32-B

vNetwork Distributed SwitchPG PG PG PG PG PG PG PG PG PG PG PG

TOTAL COST: 12 VLANs (one per VM)

TOTAL COST: 1 PVLAN (over 90% savings…)

W2003EE-32-A W2003EE-32-B W2003EE-32-A W2003EE-32-B W2003EE-32-A W2003EE-32-B W2003EE-32-A W2003EE-32-B W2003EE-32-A W2003EE-32-B W2003EE-32-A W2003EE-32-B

vNetwork Distributed SwitchPG (with Isolated PVLAN)

Private VLANs - Continued

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Designing the Network

How do you design the virtual network for

performance and availability and but maintain

isolation between the various traffic types

(e.g. VM traffic, VMotion, and Management)?

• Starting point depends on:

• Number of available physical ports on server

• Required traffic types

• 2 NIC minimum for availability, 4+ NICs

per server preferred

• 802.1Q VLAN trunking highly recommended for logical

scaling (particularly with low NIC port servers)

• Previous examples are meant as guidance and do not

represent strict requirements in terms of design

• Understand your requirements and resultant traffic types and

design accordingly

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Tips & Tricks

• KB - Changing a MAC address in a Windows virtual machine (1008473)

• When a physical machine is converted into a virtual machine, the MAC address of the network adapter is

changed. This can pose a problem when software is installed where the licensing is tied to the MAC

address.

• KB – Configuring speed and duplex of an ESX Server host network adapter (1004089)

• ESX recommended settings for Gigabit-Ethernet speed and duplex while connecting to a physical switch

port are as following:

• Auto Negotiate <-> Auto Negotiate

• It is not recommended to mix hard-coded setting with Auto-negotiate.

• KB - Sample Configuration - Network Load Balancing (NLB) Multicast mode over routed

subnet - Cisco Switch Static ARP Configuration (1006525)

• NLB Multicast Mode – Static ARP Resolution

• Since NLB packets are unconventional, meaning the IP address is Unicast while the MAC address of it is

Multicast, switches and routers drop NLB packets

• NLB Multicast Packets get dropped by routers and switches, causing the ARP tables of switches to not get

populated with cluster IP and MAC address

• Manual ARP Resolution of NLB cluster address is required on physical switch and router interfaces

• Cluster IP and MAC static resolution is set on each switch port that connects to ESX host

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Tips & Tricks - Continued

• KB - Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) network information via command line and

VirtualCenter on an ESX host (1007069)

• Utilizing Cisco Discovery protocol (CDP) to get switch port configuration information.

• This command is utilized to troubleshoot network connectivity issues related to VLAN tagging methods on

virtual and physical port settings.

• KB - Troubleshooting network issues with the Cisco show tech-support command

(1015437)

• If you experience networking issues between vSwitch and physical switched environment, you can obtain

information about the configuration of a Cisco router or switch by running the show tech-support command

in privileged EXEC mode.

• Note: This command does not alter the configuration of the router.

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Troubleshooting

• KB - ESX host or virtual machines have intermittent or no network connectivity

(1004109)

• KB - Troubleshooting Nexus 1000V vDS network issues (1014977)

• KB - Cisco Nexus 1000V installation and licensing information (1013452)

• Cisco Nexus 1000V Troubleshooting Guide, Release 4.0(4)SV1(2) 20/Jan/2010

• Cisco Nexus 1000V Troubleshooting Guide, Release 4.0(4)SV(1) 21/Jan/2010

• KB - Configuring promiscuous mode on a virtual switch or portgroup (1004099)

• KB - Troubleshooting network issues by capturing and sniffing network traffic via

tcpdump (1004090)

• KB - Troubleshooting network connection issues using Address Resolution Protocol

(ARP) (1008184)

• IEEE OUI and Company id Assignments http://standards.ieee.org/regauth/oui/index.shtml

• KB - Network performance issues (1004087)

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Troubleshooting - Continued

• KB - Low Network Throughput in Windows Guest when Running UDP Application

(5298153)

• KB - Performance of Outgoing UDP Packets Is Poor (10172)

• KB - Poor Network File Copy performance between local VMFS and shared VMFS

(1003554)

• KB - Cannot connect to ESX 4.0 host for 30-40 minutes after boot (1012942)

• Ensure that DNS is configured and reachable from the ESX host

• KB - Identifying issues with and setting up name resolution on ESX Server (1003735)

• Note: localhost must always be present in the hosts file. Do not modify or remove the entry for localhost

• The hosts file must be identical on all ESX Servers in the cluster

• There must be an entry for every ESX Server in the cluster

• Every host must have an IP address, Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN), and short name

• The hosts file is case sensitive. Be sure to use lowercase throughout the environment

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Must Read…

Conclusion

This study compares performance results for e1000 and

vmxnet virtual network devices on 32-bit and 64-bit guest

operating systems using the netperf benchmark. The results

show that when a virtual machine is running with software

virtualization, e1000 is better in some cases and vmxnet is

better in others. Vmxnet has lower latency, which sometimes

comes at the cost of higher CPU utilization. When hardware

virtualization is used, vmxnet clearly provides the best

performance.

Conclusion

VMXNET3, the newest generation of virtual network adapter from

VMware, offers performance on par with or better than its previous

generations in both Windows and Linux guests. Both the driver

and the device have been highly tuned to perform better on

modern systems. Furthermore, VMXNET3 introduces new

features and enhancements, such as TSO6 and RSS. TSO6

makes it especially useful for users deploying applications that

deal with IPv6 traffic, while RSS is helpful for deployments

requiring high scalability. All these features give VMXNET3

advantages that are not possible with previous generations of

virtual network adapters. Moving forward, to keep pace with an

ever‐increasing demand for network bandwidth, we recommend

customers migrate to VMXNET3 if performance is of top concern

to their deployments.

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© 2009 VMware Inc. All rights reserved

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Break

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vSphere 4

Performance Best Practices

Paul Hill - System Management Escalation Engineer, GSS

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Agenda

vSphere 4 Performance Enhancements Overview

Virtual Center

High Availability

Distributed Resource Scheduler

Fault Tolerance

Hardware considerations and settings

CPU Performance

Memory Performance

Benchmarking

Common Support Issues

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vSphere 4 Performance Enhancements

Efficiency - reduced virtualization overheads, higher consolidation ratios

Control – Performance monitoring and management, dynamic resource sizing

providing better scalability

Choice – Offering several options for guest OS, virtualization technologies,

broader HCL, and integration with 3rd party management tools

Scalability Enhancements:

vCPU – 4 to 8

VM memory – 65GB to 255GB

Host CPU core – 32 to 64

Host max memory – 256GB to 1TB

Powered-on VM per host – 128 to 320

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Performance Enhancements (cont.)

New Virtual Machine HW support

-SAS for MSCS 2008 support

-IDE for older guest OS

-VMXnet generation 3

-VM hotplug support: dynamically add vCPU and memory

-VMDirectPath: High i/o to physical network devices

CPU Enhancements

-Relaxed CO-Scheduler tuned for SMP VMs

-CPU locking algorithm is improved to reduce overhead in situations

where scheduling decisions are required

-Scheduler aware of process cache to optimize CPU usage

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Memory Enhancements

HW-Assisted Memory Virtualization

VMs differ from physical servers in the respect of virtual memory address

translation

Guest VM memory addresses need to be translated to guest physical addresses

using the guest OS’s page tables before translating to machine physical memory

addresses

The use of shadow page tables are required for this mapping which concurs CPU

and memory overhead

Current processor HW is now available to improve this situation with 2nd level page

table support

-Intel EPT (Extended Page Tables)

-AMD RVI (Rapid Virtualization Indexing)

TLB miss costs in the form of latency is higher with 2nd level PTs than with a single

PT, but the use of large pages for the guest OS will improve performance

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Virtual Center Scalability

Ability to support large scale virtual datacenters

Single VC server = manage 300 ESX hosts, 3000 virtual machines

Ability to link multiple VC servers with ―Linked-Mode‖ to manage up to 10,000

virtual machines from a single console

Performance Charts

-Now, view CPU, memory, disk, network from a single dashboard

-Identify top resource consumers from an aggregate view

-Thumbnail views for host, resource pools, clusters, data-stores to Quickly navigate to a specific chart

Easily drill down at many levels of the inventory to flesh out performance issue

-Data-store utilization by file type and unused capacity

Application Performance

- Oracle, SQL Server, SAP, Exchange, Java

Tools - VMMark, APPspeed

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VirtualCenter Performance

High CPU utilization and sluggish UI performance

Number of clients attached is high

VC needs to keep clients consistent with inventory changes

Aggressive alarm settings

DB administration

Periodic maintenance

Recovery and log settings

Appropriate VC statistics level

Use gigabit NICs for the service console to clone VMs

Assign permissions appropriately

SQL Server Express will only run well up to 5 hosts and/or 50 VMs. Past that, VC needs to run off an Enterprise-class DB.

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Virtual Center Best Practices

VC Database sizing

Estimate of the space required to store your performance statistics in the DB

Separate Critical Files onto Separate Drives

Make sure the database and transaction log files are placed on separate

physical drives

Place the tempdb database on a separate physical drive if possible

Arrangement distributes the I/O to the DB and dramatically improves its

performance

If a third drive is not feasible, place the tempdb files on the transaction log drive

Enable Automatic Statistics

Keep vCenter logging level low, unless troubleshooting

Proper scheduling of DB backups, maintenance, monitoring

Do not run vCenter on a server that has many applications running

vCenter Heartbeat - http://www.vmware.com/products/vcenter-server-

heartbeat/

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High Availability (HA)

HA network configuration check – DNS, NTP, lowercase hostnames, HA advanced settings

Redundancy: server hardware, shared storage, network, management

Test network isolation from a core switch level, and host failure for expected outage behavior

Critical VMs should NOT be grouped together

Categorize VM criticality, then set the failover appropriately

Valid VM network label names required for proper failover

Failover capacity/Admission control may be too conservative when host and VM sizes vary widely – slot size calculator in VC

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DRS (Distributed Resource Scheduler)

Higher number of hosts => more DRS balancing options

Recommend up to 32 hosts/cluster, may vary with VC server configuration and VM/host ratio

Network configuration on all hosts - VMotion network: Security policies, VMotion NIC enabled, Gig

Reservations, Limits, and Shares

- Shares take effect during resource contention

- Low limits can lead to wasted resources

- High VM reservations may limit DRS balancing

- Overhead memory

- Use resource pools for better manageability, do not nest too deep

Virtual CPU‘s and Memory size

High memory size and virtual CPU‘s => fewer migration opportunities

Configure VMs based on need network, etc.

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DRS (Cont.)

Ensure hosts are CPU compatible

- Intel vs. AMD

- Similar CPU family/features

- Consistent server bios levels, and NX bit exposure

- Enhanced VMotion Compatibility (EVC)

- ―VMware VMotion and CPU Compatibility‖ whitepaper

- CPU incompatibility => limited DRS VM migration options

Larger Host CPU and memory size preferred for VM placement (if all equal)

Differences in cache or memory architecture => inconsistency in performance

Aggressiveness threshold - Moderate threshold (default) works well for most cases

Aggressive thresholds recommended if homogenous clusters and VM demand relatively

constant and few affinity/anti-affinity rules

Use affinity/anti-affinity rules only when needed

Affinity rules: closely interacting VMs Anti-affinity rules: I/O intensive workloads, availability

Automatic DRS mode recommended (cluster-wide)

Manual/Partially automatic mode for location-critical VMs (per VM)

Per VM setting overrides cluster-wide setting

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FT - Fault Tolerance

FT Provides complete VM redundancy

By definition, FT doubles resource requirements

Turning on FT disables performance-enhancing features like, H/W MMU

Each time FT is enabled, it causes a live migration

Use a dedicated NIC for FT traffic

Place primaries on different hosts

Asynchronous traffic patterns

Host Failure considerations

Run FT on machines with similar characteristics

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HW Considerations and Settings

When purchasing new servers, target MMU virtualization(EPT/RVI) processors,

or at least CPU virtualization(VT-x/AMD-V) depending on your application work

loads

If your application workload is creating/destroying a lot of processes, or

allocating a lot of memory them MMU will help performance

Purchase uniform, high-speed, quality memory, populate memory banks evenly

in the power of 2.

Choosing a system for better i/o performance MSI-X is needed which allows

support for multiple queues across multiple processors to process i/o in parallel

PCI slot configuration on the motherboard should support PCIe v/2.0 if you

intend to use 10 gb cards, otherwise you will not utilize full bandwidth

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HW Considerations and Settings (cont.)

BIOS Settings

- Make sure what you paid for,… is enabled in the bios

-enable ―Turbo-Mode‖ if your processors support it

- Verify that hyper-threading is enabled – more logical CPUs allow more options

for the VMkernel scheduler

- NUMA systems verify that node-interleaving is enabled

- Be sure to disable power management if you want to maximize performance unless

you are using DPM. Need to decide if performance out-weighs power savings

C1E halt state - This causes parts of the processor to shut down for a short period of time in order to save

energy and reduce thermal loss

-Verify VT/NPT/EPT are enabled as older Barcelona systems do not enable these by

default

-Disable any unused USB, or serial ports

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Resource Types - CPU

CPU resources are the raw processing speed of a given host or

VM

However, on a more abstract level, we are also bound by the

hosts’ ability to schedule those resources.

We also have to account for running a VM in the most optimal

fashion, which typically means running it on the same processor

that the last cycle completed on.

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ESX Server

CPU Performance

Some multi-threaded apps in a SMP VM may not

perform well

Use multiple UP VMs on a multi-CPU physical machine

ESX Server

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CPU Performance

CPU virtualization adds varying amounts of overhead

Little or no overhead for the part of the workload that can run in direct

execution

Small to significant overhead for virtualising sensitive privileged instructions

Performance reduction vs. increase in CPU utilization

CPU-bound applications: any CPU virtualization overhead results in reduced

throughput

non-CPU-bound applications: should expect similar throughput at higher CPU

utilization

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CPU Performance

ESX supports up to eight virtual processors per VM

• Use UP VMs for single-threaded applications

• Use UP HAL or UP kernel

• For SMP VMs, configure only as many VCPUs as needed

• Unused VCPUs in SMP VMs:

• Impose unnecessary scheduling constraints on ESX Server

• Waste system resources (idle looping, process migrations, etc.)

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CPU Performance

Full support for 64-bit guests

64-bit can offer better performance than 32-bit

• More registers, large kernel tables, no HIGHMEM issue in Linux

ESX Server may experience performance problems due to shared

host interrupt lines

• Can happen with any controller; most often with USB

• Disable unused controllers

• Physically move controllers

• See KB 1290 for more details

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Resource Types - Memory

When assigning a VM a ―physical‖ amount of RAM, all you are really

doing is telling ESX how much memory a given VM process will

maximally consume past the overhead.

Whether or not that memory is physical depends on a few factors: Host

configuration, DRS shares/Limits/Reservations and host load.

Generally speaking, it is better to OVER-commit than UNDER-commit.

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Memory Performance

ESX memory space overhead

Service Console: 272 MB

VMkernel: 100 MB+

Per-VM memory space overhead increases with:

Number of VCPUs

Size of guest memory

32 or 64 bit guest OS

ESX memory space reclamation

Page sharing

Ballooning

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Memory Performance

Page tables

ESX cannot use guest page tables

ESX Server maintains shadow page tables

Translate memory addresses from virtual to machine

Per process, per VCPU

VMM maintains physical (per VM) to machine maps

No overhead from ―ordinary‖ memory references

Overhead

Page table initialization and updates

Guest OS context switching

VA

PA

MA

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Memory Performance

Avoid high active host memory over-commitment

• Total memory demand = active working sets of all VMs

+ memory overhead

– page sharing

• No ESX swapping: total memory demand < physical memory

Right-size guest memory

• Define adequate guest memory to avoid guest swapping

• Per-VM memory space overhead grows with guest memory

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Memory Performance

Increasing a VM’s memory on a NUMA machine

Will eventually force some memory to be allocated from a remote node, which

will decrease performance

Try to size the VM so both CPU and memory fit on one node

Node 0 Node 1

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Memory Performance

NUMA scheduling and memory placement policies in ESX manages all VMs transparently

No need to manually balance virtual machines between nodes

NUMA optimizations available when node interleaving is disabled

Manual override controls available

Memory placement: 'use memory from nodes'

Processor utilization: 'run on processors'

Not generally recommended

For best performance of VMs on NUMA systems

# of VCPUs + 1 <= # of cores per node

VM memory <= memory of one node

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Install VMware Tools

vmxnet – high speed networking driver

Memory balloon driver

Improved graphics – mks, screen resolution

Idler program – deschedule Netware guests when idle

Timer sponge for correct accounting of time

Experimental, manually started

www.vmware.com/pdf/vi3_esx_vmdesched.pdf

Time Sync – syncs time with the host every minute

Manually started (KB 1318)

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Benchmarking Guidelines

Carefully select benchmarks

Represents application

Documentation

Repeatability

Define parameters being measured and their metrics

Throughput (MBps), latency (ms)

Benchmark a specific system component

Monitor specific component metrics

Ensure no other component on the system is constrained

Or document any such constraint

For comparisons, preferably vary single parameter at a time

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Benchmarking Guidelines

Comparing native and virtual machines

# of Physical CPUs = # of Virtual CPUs

Native Kernel/HAL = VM Kernel/HAL

Physical Memory = VM Memory

Same bitness (32 or 64) of OS and application

Timing within the VM can be inaccurate

Especially when the processor is over-committed

Use external time source (e.g., the ‗ping‘ methodology)

Performance tools may not work accurately in a VM

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Benchmarking Guidelines

VMmark: A scalable benchmark for virtualized enterprise systems

• Provides meaningful measurement of virtualization performance

• Generates metric that scales with underlying system capacity

• Used to compare the performance of different hardware and virtualization platforms

• Employs realistic, diverse workloads running on multiple OSes

• Mail server: Windows 2003 / MS Exchange 2003 / LoadSim

• Java server: Windows 2003 / SPECjbb2005

• Web server: SLES10 / SPECweb2005

• Database server: SLES10 / MySQL / SysBench

• File server: SLES10 / DBench

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Common Support Issues – ESX/ESXi

Snapshots are not a backup tool

Running a VM on a snapshot may cause performance issues, and could fill up

the data stores

VM-support logs, archive point in time

ESXi - profile capture – syslog export – VIMA - mix with classic

Set the COS to 800 MB

v/4 COS: custom build of RHEL5 up3, limit non-standard RPMS

Hardware health monitoring

AMD Servers- NUMA memory balance

Size guest memory appropriately to avoid guest OS swapping

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Common Support Issues – Troubleshooting

Log collection at the time of the problems, and prior to support request-

website initiated.

Limit configuration changes

Call right away, always better to ask first than wait

Stay current, be proactive, not reactive, could be too late

Keep VMware tools up to date

KB, documentation, technical papers

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Reference links

http://www.vmware.com/files/pdf/perf-vsphere-memory_management.pdf

http://www.vmware.com/resources/techresources/10041

http://www.vmware.com/resources/techresources/10054

http://www.vmware.com/resources/techresources/10066

http://www.vmware.com/files/pdf/perf-vsphere-cpu_scheduler.pdf

http://www.vmware.com/pdf/RVI_performance.pdf

http://www.vmware.com/pdf/Perf_ESX_Intel-EPT-eval.pdf

http://www.vmware.com/files/pdf/perf-vsphere-fault_tolerance.pdf

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Questions