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  • 1. Narratives Disturbed
    Visual Narrative

2. 3. 4. !
5. Strauss BINARY OPPOSITIONS
Levels
Propp SPHERES of action
Barthes - Tabulated
Greimas semiotic squares
frames
6. For the traditional critic, the most profound hidden design in a narrative was its unity, writes Mark Currie, and in the critical quest for unity there was a desire to present a narrative as a coherent and stable project.In the view of the poststructuralist critic, this was just a way of reducing the complexity of a narrative. (Currie 1998, p. 3)
Narratological space has seldom been disturbed by blurrings, troubling ambivalences or multiplications.In it boundaries are clearly defined and categories clearly distinguished. (Gibson 1996, p. 7)
7. Dark
Light
8. Bad
Good
9. Primitive
Civilised
10. Spiritual
Scientific
11. Dead
Living
12. Dead
Living
13. Machine
Human
14. Machine
Human
15. hybrids
Why calling Barack Obama a "black" man resurrects an age old racist institution particular to the United States and defeats the purpose of a post-racial politics
(Harwood 2008)
16. hybrids
Many people still stick to a one-race label, even if they are of mixed descent, researchers say, sometimes because of strong identification with one racial group, and occasionally because of a conscious effort not to dilute the numbers of the group they most identify with.
(Navvaro 2008)
17. Narratives Disturbed
Visual Narrative
18. Narratives Disturbed
hybrids
Unsettling assumptions about narrative (becoming)
Multiplicity (becoming)
Simulation
Rupturing (metafiction)
19. If I were forced to use a single word to characterize a narrative organization of data, that word would be causality. Creating time and place in narrative is not as important as constructing a possible logic for the events that occur.(Branigan1992, pp. 216-7 )
20. unsettling assumptions about narrative
The films of David Lynch seem to contradict most ideas we have about causality:
Linearity:We usually picture the progression of a narrative as a single straight line running from the start to the finish. (All narrative consists of a discourse which integrates a sequence of events of human interest into the unity of a single plot. (Bremond 1980, p. 63) )
Often in Lynchs movies, however, a character interacts with a future or past version of themselves.For example
21. unsettling assumptions about narrative
In the Lost Highway.
DICK LAURANT IS DEAD
22. unsettling assumptions about narrative
Identity: Most narratives clearly construct the identity of a character.They do not simply allow us to understand the sex, race or occupation (etc.), but also their concerns, desires and motivations. (The permanence of the distribution of a small number of roles is not simply fortuitous: we have seen that the number of actants [i.e. character types] was determined by the conditions of the perception of signification. (Greimas 1983, p. 77))
In a Lynch film again, however, such assumptions are usually confounded
23. unsettling assumptions about narrative
It is not unusual for one character to suddenly become another without any explanation as to why. Neither are there any clear answers as to how the first character relates to the second.As viewers we can no longer say exactly what the identity of a character is but must instead think about what the character has now become or in the process of becoming.(See the Lost Highway, Inland Empire, and Mulholland Drive)
Lynch also blurs the boundaries of a characters identity by not drawing lines between the reality of the story world and the dreams, memories or perceptions of the characters within in it.
24. unsettling assumptions about narrative
Additionally, Lynch will also occasionally use the same actor / actress in more than one role.This further complicates our attempt to establish an understanding of a characters identity. As viewers we are left instead with a series of questions:Is this character meant to be the same person?How do the other characters relate to him or her do they recognise that this is the same person?
25. unsettling assumptions about narrative
26. Multiplicities
27. The term multiplicity is associated with philosopher Giles Deleuze and Felix Guattari:its basic definition is a large number or variety.On one hand we can make sense of a multiplicity, it can be organized, it can be divided up - like the specific players of a football team.But on the other hand it is much more sensual, unconscious, about feelings - like the action and interaction of football players during a game. (Deleuze and Guattari 1987, p.36)In this way it forms a tension between what we can understand and what we cant.
28. Martin Creed (2006) 370 Balls. In Museum of Modern Art, Edinburgh.
29. Antony Gormley (1993) European Field
30. Matrix Reloaded
31. MULTIPLICITY
INDIVIDUAL
32. Rembrandt (1669) Self Portrait
In Rembrandts great portraits we feel face to face with real people, we sense their warmth, their need for sympathy and also their loneliness and suffering.Those keen eyes that we know so well must have been able to look straight into the human heart.I realize that such an expression may sound sentimental, but I know no other way of describing the almost uncanny knowledge Rembrandt appears to have had of what the Greeks called the working of the soul. (Gombrich 1950, p. 423)
33. The architecture of the city ceases even to frame the life of the street, and the carefully constructed urban spaces of earlier masters of urban views gives way to a controlled chaos. ( Brettell 1992,p. xxiv )
34. Another philosopher who used the term multiplicity was Michel Serres, he writes:We are fascinated by the unit; only a unity seems rational to us. We scorn the senses, because their information reaches us in bursts.We scorn the groupings of the world For us they seem to enjoy a of the status of Being only when they are subsumed beneath a unity A cartload of bricks isnt a house. (Serres 1995, p. 2)
35. Becoming
Cornelia Parker (1991)Cold Dark Matter
36. Charles Stagg photographed by Scot Eslinger (2005) Bottle Houses
http://images.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.krepcio.com/vitreosity/archives/ruirgoord-TRAN.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.krepcio.com/vitreosity/archives/2007_03.html&h=370&w=494&sz=101&hl=en&start=180&tbnid=IjONKdBCaeAXuM:&tbnh=97&tbnw=130&prev=/images%3Fq%3Doutsider%2Bart%26start%3D160%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN
37. Grandma Prisbys Bottle Village (1956 80)
38. Mr. Imagination [photo by Ron Gordon]
In: Cerny, C and Seriff (eds.) , S. Recycled Re-seen: Folk Art from the Global Scrap Heap (1996) New York, Museum of International Folk Art, p. 51.
39. The allegorical impulse
Let us say for the moment that allegory occurs whenever one text is doubled by another (Owens 1980, p.53)
Allegory is a traditionally a story of poem that can be interpreted to reveal a moral or political message.In allegorical structure, then, one text is read through another, however fragmentary, intermittent, or chaotic their relationship may be . (ibid p. 54)
In art this process is reflected in the work of artists who make work by reproducing that of others; the manipulations to which these artists subject such images work to empty them of their resonance, their significance, their authoritative claim to meaning. (ibid)
40. Sherrie Levine (1981) After Walker Evans
41. It is a revelation to compare Menards Don Quixote with Cervantess. The latter, for example, wrote (part one, chapter nine):
truth, whose mother is history, rival of time, depository of deeds, witness of the past, exemplar and advisor to the present, and the futures counsellor.
Written in the seventeenth century, written by the lay genius Cervantes, this enumeration is a mere rhetorical praise of history. Menard, on the other, writes:
truth, whose mother is history, rival of time, depository of deeds, witness of the past, exemplar and advisor to the present, and the futures counsellor.
History, the mother of truth: the idea is astounding. Menard, a contemporary of William James, does not define history as an inquiry into reality but as its origin. Historical truth, for him, is not what has happened; it is what we judge to have happened. The final phrases exemplar and adviser to the present, and the futures counsellor are brazenly pragmatic.
The contrast in style is so vivid. The archaic style of Menard quite foreign, after all suffers from a certain affectation. Not so that of his forerunner, who handles with ease the current Spanish of his time.(Borges 2000, p. 69)
42. Pierre Huyghe (1999) The Third Memory
43. Simulation
science link
44. Simulation
Simulation threatens the difference between true and false, between real and imaginary (Baudrillard 1988 [1983], p.171)
One analogy Baudrillard draws to explain simulation is: if someone is simply feigning to be ill they can go to bed and pretend.If someone is simulating illness however, they actually produce in themselves some of the symptoms i.e. psychosomatics.
We might consider Truth as being a kind of Meta-narrative.Postmodernism was particularly sceptical of disciplines or institutions which would claim to be presenting the truth - such a history, or museums as if it were definitive and eternal.Simulation is a particularly powerful way to disturb such authority.
45. simulation
Museum of Jurassic Technology
46. Louise Hopkins (2001) Europe and the Mid