Virtual worlds and Memory

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Memory and AI

Memory and Artificial IntelligenceLearning, memory, and cognition in virtual worlds

Designing learning for artificial agents: Transferring kinaesthetic learners procedural skills in virtual environments to embodied artificial intelligent agents Research FocusSynopsisHuman Memory Atkinson-Shiffrin modelA taxonomy of mammalian long-term memory systems (1980 present)Squire, L.R. Memory and Brain, New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.To redo5History of implicit memoryDescartes (1649), Maine de Biran (1804)Implicit memory is based on implicit learning. It is an unconscious, non intentional form of memory that is expressed through performance rather than recollectionIn our every day language we refer to explicit memory not implicit Much debate about learning in the absence ofawareness. Perhaps unconscious memory? Perhaps hard to verbalize?In implicit memory studies, subjects are aware of the stimuli, but not necessarily their memory for them.6Motor Skills Learning

Learning how to ride a bikeWhere is it?

the striatum, cerebellum and motor areas of the cortex (neocortex, parietal cortex). Basal Ganglia7Cognitive Architecture DefinitionA Cognitive Architecture specifies the underlying infrastructure of an intelligent systems

The short-term and long term memory that store content about the agents belief, goals and knowledgeThe representation and organisation of structures that are embedded in these memoriesThe functional process that operate on these structures (performance and learning mechanisms)A programming language that lets one construct knowledge-based systems which embody the architectures assumptions.

Is language an architecture? Definition of an architeture8Cognitive Architecture TaxonomySymbolic ArchitectureSymbolic AI: the hypothesis that all intelligent thoughts are symbolic manipulation.

A physical symbol system has the necessary and sufficient means for general intelligence action Newell and Simon (1976)

10Symbolic Processor

Emergent ArchitectureBased on Subsymbolic artificial intelligenceUsed as a metaphor of the human brain, where cognitive activities of the brain are interpreted by theoretical concepts that have their origin in neuroscience

The intuitive processor is a subconceptual connectionist dynamical system that does not admit a complete, formal and precise conceptual level of description Smolensky (1988) 12Subsymbolic network

Hybrid Architecture

Comparison of Cognitive architecturesperception, robotics, learning and pattern recognition15Key Design Properties for Cognitive ArchitecturesSoar (Symbolic)Investigating transfer learning in the urban combat testbed. Integrating soar with a real-time strategy game Efficiently implementing episodic memory. InterfaceApplication

Soar is a general cognitive architecture for developing systems that exhibit intelligent behavio17Memory structure in Soar

Working memory= short term memory18OpenCog Prime (Hybrid)

Intelligent virtual agents for MMOGs, serious games and training simulations.Some natural language applicationsArtificial General Intelligence (AGI)InterfaceApplicationCognitive Synergy Theory adopts a workingdefinition of intelligence as the ability toachieve goals in environments, where the issueof how to weight different goals andenvironments is admitted as a subtle one19OpenCog Prime Memorytypes ofmemory, corresponding to the following typesof knowledge: declarative, procedural, sensory,episodic, attentional and intentional.The first four of these memory types arestandard in cognitive science [9,10]. Attentionalknowledge is knowledge pertaining to whichentities within the system should get space andtime resources at a given moment; this is closelyrelated to the notion of consciousness [11].Intentional knowledge refers to the systemsoverall goals and derived subgoals (which maybe continually revised by the systems activity20Motor skills learning testse.g. retention of procedural knowledge, procedural memory consolidation, procedural learningPursuit-rotor learning Mirror tracingSerial Retention Time TaskPouring taskVEs in training procedural memory21Serial Retention Task (RST)Subjects press keys as quickly as possible in response to stimuli that appear in various locations on the screenThe dependent measure is reaction time

The quintessentialparadigm for studying procedural learning is the serialreaction time (SRT) task [43], in which subjects press keysas quickly as possible in response to stimuli that appear invarious locations on the screen. A large response timeimprovement is observed when the stimulus sequence isrepeated, even when subjects are unaware that a sequenceexists. In addition, changing the location of the responsekeys interferes with SRT learning, but changing thefingers that push the keys does not [44]. Thus, ifprocedural learning is used in information-integrationtasks then switching the locations of the response keysshould interfere with learning, but switching the fingersthat depress the keys should not.22Why Second Life?

Vs.Combines features of web2.0 instant messaging, voice chat, real time social networking

SL is good to mount formal experiments in social psy or cognitive science because the researcher can construct a facility comparable to a lab and can recruit online subjects. low cost

WoW may be better for nonintrusive statistical methodologies examining social networks and economic systems, because it naturally generates a vast trove of diverse butstandardized data about social and economic interactions. Both allow users to create new software modules to extract data. WoW is a very conducive environment forquantitative research because it encourages individuals to write mod or add-on programs, and scientists can use some existing software as research tools or write their own

Online virtual worlds illustrate well the deficienciesof the Internet (46), notably its highlatency (slow packet delivery speed) and lowbandwidth (amount of information that can bedelivered in a given period of time). WoW managesthe bandwidth problem by placing all thegraphics on the users computers, but this meansthat they cannot create their own objects and atbest can assemble existing components. Thiswould not work for SL, because the whole pointis to empower users to create everything in theirvirtual world from scratch themselves. The penaltyfor SL users is a delay whenever the avatarmoves to a new location, because all the specificationsfor the environment must be downloadedfrom the server, often thousands of milesaway.23Cognitive Science in Virtual Worlds?Human interacting via the virtual world and run the experiment with the avatar pushing the buttonsToo complex to design such a test in a Virtual World (limitation)?What hypothesis I can present?Cognitive relationship between a human user and his or her on-line representationGardner Multiple Intelligence theory (1993): Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence (body smart)

Those with strong bodily-kinesthetic intelligence seem to use what might be termed muscle memory - they remember things through their body such as verbal memory or images.Procedural memory is the long-term memory of skills and procedures, or "how to" knowledge (procedural knowledge).

24How to bridge link from experimental results to an AI agent?