viral diseases in crustaceans
Post on 17-Mar-2018
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Viral diseases in crustaceans
The major virus families present in the crustaceans include Parvoviridae, Baculoviridae, Picornaviridae, Reoviridae, Togaviridae, Cornaviridae.
Currently, at least 14 virus diseases of cultured shrimp are recognised.
Yellow Head disease (YHD) Yellow head disease (YHD) is caused by Yellow head
Virus (YHV). YHV is an ssRNA virus ,likely related to viruses in the Family
Coronaviridae and Arteriviridae. Host RangeNatural infections occur in Penaeus monodon, but infections are also
reported in P. japonicus, L. vannamei, P. setiferus, and P. stylirostris. Penaeus merguiensis, appear to be resistant to disease.
Palaemon styliferus has been shown to be a carrier of viable virus. Euphausia spp. (krill), Acetes spp. and other small shrimp are also reported to carry YHD viruses.
YHD was reported in Thailand for the whole year of 1999.
Diseased shrimp aggregate at the edges of the ponds or near the surface.
Diagnosis: The hepatopancreas becomes discoloured which gives the cephalothorax a yellowish appearance, hence the name of the disease. The overall appearance of the shrimp is abnormally pale. It affects many tissues such as gills, lymphoid organ, haemocytes and connective tissue.
Histopathology: Degenerative changes in nuclei and presence of cytoplasmic basophilic inclusion bodies.
Post-larvae (PL) at 20-25 days and older shrimp are infected while PL
Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis (IHHN)
IHHN is caused by a non-enveloped icosahedral ssDNA virus, Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV) belonging to the family Parvoviridae.
IHHNV infects a wide range of penaeid shrimps, but does not appear to infect other decapod crustacean.
Clinical signs: Affected shrimp exhibit reduced growth, cuticular deformities
to rostrum and other areas of exoskeleton. In P. monodon, the infection causes bluish coloration and opaque
The chronic disease, runt deformity syndrome (RDS) is caused by IHHNV infection of L. vannamei
Deformed rostrums grow to one side
Abnormalities of the sixth abdominal segment and tail fan.-RDS
White Spot Disease (WSD) The causative agent of white spot disease (WSD) is the
white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or white spot virus (WSV), dsDNA virus.(family- Nimaviridae)
Cause mortalities ranging up to 80 100% in 2 7 days
susceptible species: Ongrowing juvenile shrimp of many species of all ages but mostly from 1 - 3 months old in the grow-out ponds.
Diagnosis: Infected shrimp swim to the surface and gather near to
the pond dykes. Broken antennae, white spots of 1 mm size in the cuticle
and / or reddish discoloration mainly over the carapace.
Histological signs: nuclear hypertrophy, chromatin margination, eosinophilic to large basophilic intranuclear inclusions
Baculoviral midgut gland necrosis(BMN)
The pathogen responsible for Baculoviral Midgut Gland Necrosis (BMN) disease is Baculoviral midgut gland necrosis virus (BMNV), a non-occluded gut-infecting baculovirus.
Host Range:BMN was observed as natural infections in Penaeus japonicus,
P.monodon. BMN is considered to be one of the major problems in hatcheries
where it infects larvae and early postlarval stages causing high mortalities. The apparent white turbidity of the hepatopancreas is caused by necrosis of hepatopancreas tubule epithelium and possibly also the mucosal epithelium. Larvae float inactively but later stages (late PL) tend to show resistance the disease
Diagnosis: The infected larvae float inactively on the surface and have a white turbid midgut line through the abdomen.
Histopathology: necrotic hepatopancreatic (midgut gland) tubule, epithelial cells show nuclear hypertrophy and chromatin margination, with marginated chromatin.
Gill Associated Virus (GAV) Gill-associated virus (GAV) is a single-stranded RNA
virus related to viruses of the family Coronaviridae. Diagnosis: lethargy, lack of appetite and swim on the
surface or around the edge of ponds. The body may develop a dark red colour particularly on the appendages, tail fan and mouth parts; gills tend to be yellow to pink in colour.
Histopathology: The gills of diseased shrimp display structural damage including fusion of gill filament tips, general necrosis and loss of cuticle from primary and secondary lamellae.
Taura Syndrome Taura Syndrome (TS) is caused by a virus, Taura
Syndrome Virus (TSV) a member of the Picornaviridae.
The most susceptible species is the Pacific white shrimp L. vannamei, although P. stylirostris, and P. setiferus can also be infected.
Diagnosis: Penaeus vannamei post-larvae or older shrimp may show a pale reddish discolouration, especially of the tail fan and pleiopods (hence the name red tail disease) This colour change is due to expansion of the red chromatophores within the cuticular epithelium,and peppered appearance.
Tail fan showingreddish discoloration and
rough edges ofthe cuticular epithelium in
acute phase - TS lesionsa peppered appearance
. Three distinct phases characterize TS disease progression: i) the acute stage,during which most mortalities occur; ii) a brief transition phase, and iii) a chronic carrier stage.
In the acute phase, the cuticular epithelium is the most severely affected tissue.
Survivors of acute TSV infection pass through a brief transition phase and enter the chronic phase which may persist for the rest of their lives.
In the chronic phase, the lymphoid organ becomes the predominant site of infection.
Nuclear Polyhedrosis Baculoviroses (NPB) infections
NPB are caused by the Baculoviridae, Baculovirus penaei (BP - PvSNPV) and Mondon baculovirus (MBV PmSNPV).
BP infects in a wide range of penaeid shrimp including P.setiferus, L. vannamei, P. stylirostris and P. marginatus. BP has also been reported from P. penicillatus, P.subtilis.
MBV-type baculoviruses are primarily found in cultured P. monodon.
Diagnosis:BP causes decrease in growth rates, the shrimp stop feeding, appear lethargic and show signs of epibiont fouling(due to reduced grooming activity). The virus attacks the nuclei of hepatopancreas epithelia and also infect the mid-gut epithelia. Post-larvae older than 63 days show no clinical signs of infection.
MBV causes similar clinical signs to BP, due to similar infection of the hepatopancreatic and mid-gut epithelial nuclei. Infections of MBV may also occur in the lymphoid organ.
Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV): IMNV is the most recently emergent virus that infects Pacific white shrimps L. vannamei.
cumulative mortality attributed to IMNV infection reaches from 40% to 70% . L. stylirostris, P. monodon and F. subtiltisalso have shown to be susceptible to experimental infection.
Typical clinical signs presented in IMNV-infected shrimp are focal to extensive opaque and whitish necrotic areas in the skeletal muscles, primarily in distal abdominal segments and tail fan
. Histological injuries are characterized by coagulative muscle necrosis, often accompanied by fluid accumulation between muscle fibers, hemocytic infiltration, lymphoid organ spheroid formation and fibrosis . Darkly basophilic viral inclusions are seen within muscle cell cytoplasm, as well as in connective tissue cells and hemocytes. IMNV can be found in different tissues and organs such as skeletal muscle, lymphoid organ, hindgut, hepatopancreas, and heart.
IMNV is likely to be a member of Totiviridae family, and the first member of this family to infect a host other than fungus or protozoan.