Video Standards NTSC - The Old Standard Digitized Video - On The Way MPEG - The New Standard Applications

Download Video Standards NTSC - The Old Standard Digitized Video - On The Way MPEG - The New Standard Applications

Post on 20-Dec-2015

216 views

Category:

Documents

3 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Video Standards NTSC - The Old Standard Digitized Video - On The Way MPEG - The New Standard Applications </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> NTSC - The Old Standard 1940/41: FCC forms NTSC (National Television System Committee) Field/frame rate: 60/30 Hz (PAL: 50/25) Lines: 525 interlaced (7x5 2 x3) 15.750 kHz Interlacing: bandwidth/flicker/resolution Synchronization by H/V sync pulses Video bandwidth: 4.2 MHz in 6 MHz channels Sound: FM @ 4.5 MHz (=2000/7 line rate) </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Adding Color to NTSC Color encoding added to NTSC in 1953 Separation of Luma Y and Color Color coded on subcarrier @ 455/2 line rate Line rate adjusted by 1001/1000 Sound at 286 x line rate Drop frame time code Insufficient separation Dot crawl Hanging dots... </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Color Theory for Video Gamma: Video operates in perceptional uniform space Graphics (should) operate in linear light space Luma not Luminance Y Y (from CIE) Color space: YUV? RGB, RGBneeds primaries and white point Y B-Y R-YITU Rec. 601 or Rec. 709 color space YP B P R normalized to [-.5,.5] YC B C R smaller excursion, head room YUV, YIQNTSC only </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Digitized Video 4f SC : Sampling rate 14.318 MHz (= 4x subcarrier freq.) Samples: 910 s/l, 768 s/al Easy reconstruction of color Everything is sampled Requires accurate phase control Perfect copies - used in studio D-2 tape standard No processing of video Different for NTSC, PAL, etc </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Digitized Video ITU-R 601-4 (601): Sampling frequency: 13.5 MHz Common multiple of NTSC/PAL line rate (6x 2.5 MHz) Samples: NTSC:864 s/l720 s/al525 l PAL:858 s/l720 s/al625 l YC B C R Color Space Color subsampling 4:2:2 10bit standard (8bit mode) Ancillary data in H/V blanking intervals Interface: Parallel (SMPTE 125M) Serial (SDI, SMPTE 259M, 75 coax, 270 MHz) </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Video Tape Formats Video tape made todays TV possible Non-simultaneous transmission of events Formats: D13/4, component, 4:2:2, 10bit, R. 601, Sony D23/4, composite, 4f SC, 8bit, Sony D31/2, composite, 4f SC, 8bit, Panasonic D51/2, component, 4:2:2, 10bit, Panasonic D6HDTV on D1 tape, 1.2Gb/s, 8bit, Y@76MHz DV, DVCAMdigit., 4:1:1, 8bit, 5:1 DV, 25 Mb/s DVPRO-50digit., 4:2:2, 8bit, 3.3:1 DV, 50 Mb/s Betacam SXdigit., 4:2:2, 8bit, 10:1, Studio-MPEG-2 Dig. Betacamdigit., 4:2:2, 10bit, 2:1 </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Use of Digital Video Applications: CD-I and Video-CD: MPEG-1 on CD with App. DVD: up to 17GB at </li> </ul>