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  • Video Modeling and Matrix Training 1

    Video Modeling and Matrix Training to Teach Pretend Play in

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    A Thesis Presented

    by

    Lauren M. Dannenberg

    In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

    Master of Science

    In the field of

    Applied Behavior Analysis

    Northeastern University

    Boston, Massachusetts

    August 2010

  • Video Modeling and Matrix Training 2

    NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY

    Bouvé College of Health Sciences Graduate School

    Thesis Title: A replication of Video Modeling and Matrix Training to teach pretend play in children with autism.

    Author: Lauren M. Dannenberg

    Masters of Science in Applied Behavior Analysis

    Committee members:

    _________________________________________________ ______________

    Rebecca MacDonald Date

    _________________________________________________ ______________

    William Ahearn Date

    _________________________________________________ ______________

    Chata Dickson Date

  • Video Modeling and Matrix Training 3

    Video Modeling and Matrix Training to Teach Pretend Play in

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Lauren Dannenberg

    Northeastern University

    Submitted In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

    Master of Science in Applied Behavior Analysis

    in the Bouvé College of Health Sciences Graduate School

    of Northeastern University, August 2010

  • Video Modeling and Matrix Training 4

    Acknowledgements

    Thanks and appreciation to Rebecca MacDonald, the research supervisor of this Master’s Thesis,

    for her guidance and support throughout the data collection and writing of this Thesis. Special

    thanks are also offered to Cara Grieco for her assistance with data collection and to Cormac

    MacManus for his assistance throughout the process of this project.

  • Video Modeling and Matrix Training 5

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to combine video modeling with matrix training to teach play

    skills in young children with autism. Three children with autism were taught scripted

    vocalizations and actions for three play sets. Scripted play scenarios were developed using a 3 x

    3 x 3 matrix involving characters, vehicles and objects. A within subject multiple probe design

    across play sets was used to demonstrate experimental control with each participant.

    Additionally, a multiple probe design across participants was used to demonstrate experimental

    control across participants. Baseline data were collected for each participant with each play set.

    During training the participant watched a video model consisting of an adult engaging in the

    scripted scenario. After the participant watched the video twice they had five minutes to play

    with the toys. Once mastery criteria were achieved, untrained stimuli were presented to the

    participant to assess the emergence of recombinative play behaviors. Results showed that after

    training on at least one of the play sets, 1 of the 3 participants demonstrated emergence of script

    recombination. Recombination was performed by the second and third participant after a brief

    recombination training session. The use of a matrix was a beneficial way to systematically teach

    pretend play skills to the three participants of this study.

  • Video Modeling and Matrix Training 6

    Table of Contents

    A. Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………....5 B. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………….7 C. Method

    Participants……………………………………………………………………………....12 Setting……………………………………………………………………………….......13 Materials……………………………………………………………………………....…13 Independent Variable…………………………………………………………................15 Dependent Variable……………………………………………………………….....…..16 Experimental Design………………………………………………………………..…...18 Procedure……………………………………………………………...…………….......19 Interobserver Agreement………………………...………………………………………20

    D. Results………………………………………………………………………….....……..23 E. Discussion……………………………………………………………………...………..46 F. References……………………………………………………….…………………...….48 G. Figure Captions……………………………………………………………………...…..57 H. Figures……………………………………………………………...……………...…….58 I. Appendices

    Appendix 1: Bank play set and materials……………………………..…………………65 Appendix 2: Mansion play set and materials……………………………...……...……..66 Appendix 3: Castle play set and materials……………………………….…………...…67 Appendix 4: Bank script……………………………..……………………………...…..68 Appendix 5: Mansion script………………………………………………………...…..69 Appendix 6: Castle script………………………………………………………...……..70 Appendix 7: 3D matrices with trained scripts………………………..………...……….71 Appendix 8: 3D matrices with alternative probes…………………………………...….72 Appendix 9: Scoring guidelines for bank script………………………………...………73 Appendix 10: Scoring guidelines for mansion script………………………….………..74 Appendix 11: Scoring guidelines for castle script………………….……...……………75

  • Video Modeling and Matrix Training 7

    Using Video Modeling with Matrix Training to Teach Pretend Play.

    Autism is a developmental disability which significantly affects a child’s education (U.S.

    Department of Education, 1999). This disability often presents with severe deficits in displaying

    appropriate affect, which ultimately impedes social development (McGee, Feldman, & Chernin,

    1991). Children with autism may engage in repetitive behaviors or resist changes in the

    environment (Delano, 2007). Another deficit observed within this population is that they may be

    less likely to accept or make social initiations (Koegal, Koegal, Frea, & Fredeen, 2001). As a

    result of these deficits, children with autism are less likely to develop play skills at the same rate

    as their typically developing peers.

    In past studies researchers developed ways to teach different skills to children with

    autism. An effective way to teach children with autism is modeling. Modeling has been shown

    to be effective because it leads to skills being acquired and generalized quickly (Coleman &

    Stedman, 1974). Learning through observation of peers has also been effective in teaching

    various skills to children with autism (Garfinkle & Schwartz, 2002). Charlop-Christy, Le, and

    Freeman (2000) found that video modeling was more effective than in-vivo modeling. Video

    modeling interventions involve the learner watching a video of a typically developing peer or

    adult modeling appropriate skills. Ideally after repeated exposures the learner demonstrates

    imitation of those skills.

    The use of a video modeling can be very effective because the same model can be used

    multiple times. If a video is developed to teach one skill it can be used with different students to

    teach the same skill. It has been found to be cost effective. Using video modeling can enhance

    learning by showing edited video which highlights particular behaviors and can be repeatedly

    viewed (Ayres & Langone, 2005).Videos that are developed to teach different skills may

  • Video Modeling and Matrix Training 8

    produce a learning tool that is student specific by incorporating stimuli that are salient to that

    student.

    Reciprocating play actions and vocalizations are two marked deficits observed in children

    with autism. Taylor, Levin, and Jasper (1999) focused on teaching commenting during play to

    two children with autism via video modeling. A child with autism viewed a video with scripted

    play statements made between his sibling and an adult. Treatment sessions involved a child

    watching a video and then interacting with an adult. The children were taught to participate in an

    interaction with an adult. The adult also provided reinforcement for correct scripted comments

    made by the child. Results of this study showed that the children with autism were able to learn

    three different scripted scenarios. During these scenarios only

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