vernacular architecture (case study- h.p.)

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  • Architecture in Pre-ModernIndia Divya Nishant Goyal Anurag Arora 1 Shivansh Agarwal
  • Vernacular architectureLatin word Vernaculus means domestic, native, indigenous. Vernacular architecture is a category of architecture based on localized needs and construction materials, and reflecting local traditions. 2
  • Vernacular architecture isinfluenced by: Localized needs Local construction material Local traditionsHence, varies from area to area.It is an epitome of place to which it belongs. Can not be imported from elsewhere. 3
  • Factors influencingvernacular architecture 4
  • Climate Season wise The material should remain hot in winter and cold in summer Rainfall Example: Slanting roof and construct dwelling on stilts in areas with high level of rainfall. Winds Orientation of buildings such that they have minimal area to the direction of prevailing winds. 5
  • Effect of Culture onArchitecture Size of family unit- Joint family or nuclear family? How is food prepared and eaten? How do people interact? Local customs and beliefs. 6
  • Materials Availability of forests implies high preference to wood for construction purposes. And mud/stone otherwise. Material used will depend upon the physical condition of that area. The area prone to earthquake would have different architecture than the one with floods. Vernacular is sustainable and doesnt exhaust local resources. Only those resources are used which are found in abundance and are non- exhaustive. 7
  • Architecture inHimachal Pradesh 8
  • Reasons to chooseHimachal Architecture in HP is highly evolved and functional. It is a clich example of Vernacular Architecture. (Grown out of the land, fulfilled local needs, uses local materials, drew on local culture) Over the centuries, building methods had successfully discharged domestic, temporal and religious requirements. The most elementary form of hill architecture is still found in the old temples. These temples are widely scattered everywhere all along the mountain slopes and in the valleys. Layout plans and construction of buildings is much more complicated in hills is much more complicated than in plains. 9
  • Major Challenges Frequent and Seismic Tremors. Problems of soil erosion and land slides. Suitable orientation on the hill slopes. Existence of tall shoddy trees and dense forest area, which obstruct the winter sun required for the buildings. Limitations on the height of the building due to earthquake risk. High cost involved in the site development due to the cutting and the filling process. Non-availability and transportation problems of construction materials 10
  • Building Materials 11
  • Deodar Wood Easily available, one of the strongest indian conifers. Imparts stability to tall structures. This wood is insect and termite resistant and even when untreated, can withstand long periods of weather corrosion. Used in making posts, beams, window and door frames, shutters, roofs etc. Soft wood, easy to work in absence of high tech tools. Its properties were understood early and its texture and scent have been prized for ages. 12
  • Mud & Stone Easy availability. Good insulation. Good binding properties. Either mud is filled into the wooden forms and rammed into the place slowly building up the wall or sun dried mud blocks are used in the construction of the wall. Hard Stone: Obtained from local quarries and used in building foundation and walls. Slate Tiles: Metamorphic rock. Used in roofs of buildings. Has high quartz content, frost resistant, absorbs heat and provides moisture barrier. 13
  • Traditional Builders Traditional Artisans are employed.There knowledge is transferred orally from master artisan to apprentice.Mostly people procure materials fromtheir surroundings and build houses with the help of relatives and neighbors. This has fostered anempirical knowledge of constructionmaterial, tools and technology and all of these are reflected in traditional building techniques. 14
  • Planning Techniques 15
  • Planning Techniques Factors that govern the planning are climatic conditions, cultural influences, topography(heights), More: orientation, traffic movement, available usable spaces, sources of water supply, natural drains and paths. 16
  • Climate Influence Due to the cold climate, the southern slopes are preferred. The orientation of the houses is to maximize the penetration of the sun rays. The path of the sun, controls the height of building, as the sun is needed for each dwelling unit. 17
  • Small window size and low ceiling height to prevent heat loss and keep the interiors warmer. Site susceptible to high winds, storms, floods and landslides should be avoided. Terrace in all around the building should have proper slope for efficient drainage, in heavy rain fall and snow fall areas. 18
  • Cultural influence The house which constitutes many stores has been built for storage of grains which formed the back bone of the agrarian family. Generally cow-shed and kitchen forms a separate unit. The Indian calendar months of Baisakh, Poh, Magh and Phalgun are regarded as auspicious for the start of construction. Ideally, the main aspect of the house should face east and the rising sun. As a general rule the houses do not have a boundary wall. 19
  • Topography State falls in the region of high to very high seismic hazard. Unlike plains, here a new dimension or a height variation to the ground poses additional problem. 20
  • Mitigating Earthquake To counter the seismic forces, the traditional structures usually stand on a high solid plinth, made up of dry dressed stone masonry. The huge mass serves as a dampener pad to the earthquake forces and the dry construction allows for vibration and hence faster dissipation of the energy.In higher levels layers of wood andstone cage are constructed withrubble in between. It is non rigidand allows the building to flex withseismic waves and quickly dissipatedestructive energy of earthquake. 21
  • Slope of the ground should not be more than 30as far as possible even in rocky reaches to avoidinstability problems. 22
  • Topography In the steep hilly zones, the stepped terraces will be much beneficial environmentally and economically, as they result in the least hill cutting and disturbance to the hill stability. Minimum clearance of 1.0 m to 1.5 m should be given between the hill face and the building wall to avoid dampness and also for proper light and ventilation. Top hill surfaces near the buildings should be properly treated to make it impervious as far as possible, possibly by thick vegetation or stone pitching. 23
  • Constructing a house 24
  • Statistics Agrarian family. Double storey house. Southern orientation (Reduce heat loss). Linear arrangement of rooms, connected by verandah/balcony in both the floors. Timber and stone used, both have high thermal capacity and low conductivity. 25
  • Plan Ground flo