venture capital in india
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TERM PAPER OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND SERVICESSubmitted to: (LOVELY INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT) MBA B (3rd Sem.) (Session 2009-2011) Date- 11 Nov 2010 Submitted to: Mr Bhavdeep Singh Kochar Submitted By: Suman Tiwari Roll No. RT1902A-22 Reg. No.10904478
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI would like to confer my heartiest thanks to my coordinator of Financial Institutions and Services, Mr Bhavdeep Singh Kochar for giving me the opportunity to excel and work in the field of Financial Services, and especially its practical applications. While preparing my term paper I got to have an in depth knowledge of practical applications of the theoretical concepts and definitely the things which I have learned will undoubtedly help me in future, to analyze many processes going on in our economy.
I would also like to thank all those people who directly or indirectly helped me in accomplishing this project.
LITERATURE REVIEWIn the last decade, one of the most admired institutions among industrialists and economic policy makers around the world has been the US venture capital industry [Dossani and Kenney 2002]. The sensitivity of venture capital process to government policies and other factors that influence entrepreneurship and innovation was highlighted in a study by the US General Accounting office on behalf of the Joint Economic Committee [Premus 1985]. Venture capital entrepreneurship and innovation have been closely connected. Entrepreneurs have long had ideas that require substantial capital to implement but lacked the funds to finance these projects themselves [Gompers and Lerner 2002]. Venture capital evolved as a response to this felt need. Venture capital represents one solution to financing the high risk, potentially high-reward projects [Gompers and Lerner 2002]. The experience of US, Taiwan and Israel show that technological innovation and the growth of venture capital markets are closely interrelated [Premus 1985]. It has been reported that capital markets overlook small business opportunities because of high information and transaction costs, generally known as capital gap problem [Premus 1985, Smith and Smith 2002]. Though venture capital can meet this gap to some extent, venture capital is a special form of venture financing. In the case of venture capital, the capital market has to be conducive for supporting venture funding. At some level, entrepreneurship occurs in nearby every society, but venture capital can only exist when there is a constant flow of opportunities that have great upside potential [Dossani and Kenney 2002]. This study is a country overview of the venture capital industry supported by a set of case studies.
TOPIC: STUDY ON THE WORKING OF VENTURE CAPITAL FUNDS IN INDIA
INTRODUCTIONA number of technocrats are seeking to set up shop on their own and capitalize on opportunities. In the highly dynamic economic climate that surrounds us today, few traditional business models may survive. Countries across the globe are realizing that it is not the conglomerates and the gigantic corporations that fuel economic growth any more. The essence of any economy today is the small and medium enterprises. For example, in the US, 50% of the exports are created by companies with less than 20 employees and only 7% are created by companies with 500 or more employees. This growing trend can be attributed to rapid advances in technology in the last decade. Knowledge driven industries like InfoTech, health-care, entertainment and services have become the cynosure of bourses worldwide. In these sectors, it is innovation and technical capability that are big business-drivers. This is a paradigm shift from the earlier physical production and economies of scale model. However, starting an enterprise is never easy. There are a number of parameters that contribute to its success or downfall. Experience, integrity, prudence and a clear understanding of the market are among the sought after qualities of a promoter. However, there are other factors, which lie beyond the control of the entrepreneur. Prominent among these is the timely infusion of funds. This is where the venture capitalist comes in, with money, business sense and a lot more.
WHAT IS VENTURE CAPITAL?The venture capital investment helps for the growth of innovative entrepreneurships in India. Venture capital has developed as a result of the need to provide non-conventional, risky finance to new ventures based on innovative entrepreneurship. Venture capital is an investment in the form of equity, quasi-equity and sometimes debt - straight or conditional, made in new or untried concepts, promoted by a technically or professionally qualified entrepreneur. Venture capital means risk capital. It refers to capital investment, both equity and debt, which carries
substantial risk and uncertainties. The risk envisaged may be very high may be so high as to result in total loss or very less so as to result in high gains.. THE CONCEPT OF VENTURE CAPITAL Venture capital means many things to many people. It is in fact nearly impossible to come across one single definition of the concept. Jane Koloski Morris, editor of the well known industry publication, Venture Economics, defines venture capital as 'providing seed, start-up and first stage financing' and also 'funding the expansion of companies that have already demonstrated their business potential but do not yet have access to the public securities market or to credit oriented institutional funding sources. The European Venture Capital Association describes it as risk finance for entrepreneurial growth oriented companies. It is investment for the medium or long term return seeking to maximize medium or long term for both parties. It is a partnership with the entrepreneur in which the investor can add value to the company because of his knowledge, experience and contact base. MEANING OF VENTURE CAPITAL Venture capital is money provided by professionals who invest alongside management in young, rapidly growing companies that have the potential to develop into significant economic contributors. Venture capital is an important source of equity for start-up companies. Professionally managed venture capital firms generally are private partnerships or closely-held corporations funded by private and public pension funds, endowment funds, foundations, corporations, wealthy individuals, foreign investors, and the venture capitalists themselves. Venture capitalists generally:
Finance new and rapidly growing companies Purchase equity securities Assist in the development of new products or services Add value to the company through active participation
Take higher risks with the expectation of higher rewards Have a long-term orientation
When considering an investment, venture capitalists carefully screen the technical and business merits of the proposed company. Venture capitalists only invest in a small percentage of the businesses they review and have a long-term perspective. They also actively work with the company's management, especially with contacts and strategy formulation. Venture capitalists mitigate the risk of investing by developing a portfolio of young companies in a single venture fund. Many times they co-invest with other professional venture capital firms. In addition, many venture partnerships manage multiple funds simultaneously. For decades, venture capitalists have nurtured the growth of America's high technology and entrepreneurial communities resulting in significant job creation, economic growth and international competitiveness. Companies such as Digital Equipment Corporation, Apple, Federal Express, Compaq, Sun Microsystems, Intel, Microsoft and Genetech are famous examples of companies that received venture capital early in their development. (Source: National Venture Capital Association 1999 Year book) PRIVATE EQUITY INVESTING Venture capital investing has grown from a small investment pool in the 1960s and early 1970s to a mainstream asset class that is a viable and significant part of the institutional and corporate investment portfolio. Recently, some investors have been referring to venture investing and buyout investing as "private equity investing." This term can be confusing because some in the investment industry use the term "private equity" to refer only to buyout fund investing. In any case, an institutional investor will allocate 2% to 3% of their institutional portfolio for investment in alternative assets such as private equity or venture capital as part of their overall asset allocation. Currently, over 50% of investments in venture capital/private equity comes from institutional public and private pension funds, with the balance coming from endowments, foundations, insurance companies, banks, individuals and other entities who seek to diversify their portfolio with this investment class.
WHAT IS A VENTURE CAPITALIST? The typical person-on-the-street depiction of a venture capitalist is that of a wealthy financier who wants to fund start-up companies. The perception is that a person who develops a brand new change-the-world invention needs capital; thus, if they cant get capital from a bank or from their own pockets, they enlist the help of a venture capitalist. In truth, venture capital and private equity firms are pools of capital, typically organized as a limited partnership that invests in companies that represent the opportunity for a high rate of return within five to seven years. The venture capitalist may look at several hundred investment opportunities before investing in only a few selected companies with favorable investment opportunities. Far from being simply passive financiers, venture capitalists foster growth in companies through their involvement in the management, strategic marketing and planning of their investee companies. They are entrepreneurs first and financiers second.