Valdman, A Theory of Wrongful Exploitation

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Valdman; Exploitation; Injustice

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<p> voiUxi q, No. 6 Uiv zooqA Theory of Wrongful ExploitationMikhail ValdmanVirginia Commonwealth University zooq Milhuil Vulumun </p> <p>T viic.iiv, wi coNsiiin muluully Lenefciul liunsuclions Lelveen consenling uuulls lo Le legilimule unu Linuing, eseciully if lhiiu uilies uie unufecleu. Yel such liunsuclions cun Le ueely exloilulive. Suose, foi inslunce, lhul I full ovei lhe siue of u ciuise shi unu lhe sole vilness uemunus un exoiLilunl iice foi lhioving me u life ieseivei. If I uccel his ofei, lhis liunsuclion voulu Le mulu-ully Lenefciul unu, uiguuLly, consensuul. Slill, il voulu Le ueely ex-loilulive unu ueely viong, unu oui ugieemenl's Linuingness voulu Le oen lo queslion. In lhis uei I ulleml lo exluin vhul exloilulion is, vhen il is viong, unu vhul mules il so. I uigue lhul exloilulion is nol ulvuys viong, Lul lhul il cun Le, unu lhul ils viongness cunnol Le fully ex-luineu vilh fumiliui moiul consliuinls uguinsl huiming eole, coeic-ing lhem, oi using lhem us u meuns, oi vilh fumiliui moiul oLligulions such us un oLligulion lo iescue lhose in uisliess oi nol lo lule uuvun-luge of eole's vulneiuLililies. Ils ueeesl viongness, I uigue, lies in oui moiul oLligulion nol lo exliucl excessive Lenefls fiom eole vho cunnol, oi cunnol ieusonuLly, iefuse oui ofeis. My lun foi lhe uei is us follovs. In seclion r, I iesenl u Liief conceluul unulysis of exloilulion lo fucililule lhe ensuing uiscussion of ils viongness. In seclion z, I uigue lhul luusiLle ulleinulives lo my viev cunnol uccounl foi lhe viongness in uiuuigmulic cuses of viongful exloilulion. In seclion , I uigue lhul lheie uie lvo linus of viongful exloilulion. lhe linu lhul viongs lhe exloileu unu lhe linu lhul is meiely viong oi inuecenl. I uigue lhul my viev's muin comeli-loi lhe viev lhul exloilulion's viongness lies in lhe ooilunislic use of eole's vulneiuLililies (uefenueu Ly Allen Woou unu RoLeil Coouin) cunnol uccounl foi lhe foimei. Luslly, in seclion , I exluin vhul is involveu in exliucling excessive Lenefls fiom someone vho cunnol iefuse youi ofei, highlighling my viev's uuvunluges ovei Alun Weilheimei's somevhul similui ioosul. 1. Exploitation as Benecial UseWhul uoes il meun lo exloil somelhing` I vill uigue lhul, in lhe Liouu-esl sense, lo exloil X is simly lo secuie oi exliucl Lenefls, eilhei foi ImprintPhilosophers xiin.ii v.iix.N A Theory of Wrongful Exploitationiniiosoinins' ixiniN+ z voi. q, No. 6 (Uiv zooq)even if lhese Lenefls uie foieseeuLle. No uouLl lheie uie olhei com-liculions us vell, Lul I sel lhem usiue foi lvo ieusons. Iiisl, since lhe Lenefciul use viev is moiully neuliul, fuilhei iefnemenls vill lell us nolhing uLoul exloilulion's viongness, unu lhul is vheie my inleiesls lie. Seconu, even vilhoul fuilhei emenuulion, oLjeclions lo lhe Len-efciul use viev uLounu. The mosl common oLjeclion is lhul exloilu-lion iefeis lo u uilicului linu of use. Ioi inslunce, Allen Woou uigues lhul exloilulion is use involving lunning oi muniululion. Thus he cluims lhul u hilei vho uiinls fiom u slieum he jusl happens uon is nol exloiling il vhile u millei vho Luilus u mill on il is.3 Bul vhile ve muy Le moie inclineu lo uesciiLe use involving lunning oi muniu-lulion us exloilulive, il uoesn'l seem lhul exloilulion must involve such use. Picnicleis, il seems, cun exloil nice veulhei unu Luigluis cun exloil oen vinuovs even if lhese uclions veie nol ie-lunneu. Anu migiuling Liius, il seems, exloil lhe osilion of lhe sluis vilhoul lunning oi muniululion. Consiuei ulso RoLeil Coouin's cluim lhul lo exloil somelhing is lo mule unusual use of il, vheie, on his viev, use is unusuul vhen il is uncommon oi non-slunuuiu.4 Heie uguin I susecl lhul vhile ve mighl Le moie inclineu lo uesciiLe such use us exloilulive, exloilulion neeu nol involve such use. Inueeu, on uny ieusonuLle uccounl of uncommon oi non-slunuuiu use, ve shoulu Le uLle lo imugine cuses vheie one's use of X is Lolh common unu slunuuiu yel slill exloilulive. Some olei luyeis, foi inslunce, ex-loil lheii oonenl's iisl uveision, vhich, on uny ieusonuLle uccounl, seems neilhei uncommon noi non-slunuuiu. Inueeu, Coouin himself ioviues u counleiexumle lo his ovn unulysis. When exluining lhul exloilulion is nol necessuiily viong, he noles lhul no one Llumes hilosoheis . foi exloiling goou uigumenls.'5 I hoe lheie is nolh-ing uncommon oi non-slunuuiu uLoul lhis! As unulyses of lhe concel of exloilulion, lhen, Woou's unu Coouin's vievs uie loo limiling. This concel is Lesl unueisloou moie . Woou, A., 'Exloilulion', Social Philosophy and Policy rz (rqqj)., . rr. . Coouin, R. (rq8;), . r;o.j. Ibid., . r6q. oneself oi foi olheis, fiom one's use of X. Cull lhis lhe bcncciu| usc viev. Cn lhis viev, unylhing lhul is useu unu fiom vhich u Lenefl is eilhei secuieu oi exliucleu is exloileu.l This viev hus lhiee imoilunl unu luusiLle imliculions. Iiisl, use vilhoul Lenefl uoes nol quulify us exloilulion. If u Loxei liies Lul fuils lo lule uuvunluge of his oo-nenl's ooi ieuch, lhen, on lhis viev, he husn'l exloileu il. Similuily, if u cuilulisl fuils lo secuie oi exliucl Lenefls fiom his voileis, he muy misuse lhem Lul he uoes nol exloil lhem. Seconu, one cun ex-loil unlnovingly unu uninlenlionully. This loo seems luusiLle since ve coulu suy, foi inslunce, lhul migiuling Liius exloil lhe osilion of lhe sluis. This usecl of exloilulion, I vill uigue, mules il ossiLle lo exloil viongly Lul Llumelessly. Iinully, since secuiing oi exliucl-ing Lenefls neeun'l Le viong, exloilulion on lhe Lenefciul use viev neeun'l Le viong eilhei, even if one exloils u eison oi his ulliiLules. This loo seems luusiLle, foi suiely il neeun'l Le viong foi one lo huve one's muscului fiienu move one's iuno, even lhough one voulu lhen Le exloiling his slienglh.2 The Lenefciul use viev cun use some iefning. Iiisl, il uoesn'l seem lhul ull Lenefciul use is exloilulive. Ioi inslunce, il voulu Le ouu lo cull my use of X exloilulive if I unforeseeably secuieu u Lenefl fiom il, one cun exloil uninlenlionully Lul eihus nol unfoieseeuLly. Seconu, il is nol cleui hov lo hunule Lenefls secuieu Ly lhiiu uilies. Ioi inslunce, vhile John cun exloil Pul on Lehulf of Duviu, il voulu Le ouu lo cull lhis exloilulion if John uoesn'l inlenu lhul Duviu Lenefls r. I uiscuss in gieulei ueluil lhe uifeience Lelveen secuieu unu exliucleu Len-efls in seclion .z. RoLeil Coouin unu Joel IeinLeig uigue lhul lhough il's nol ulvuys viong lo exloil u eison's ulliiLules, il is ulvuys viong lo exloil u eison him-self (IeinLeig is less exlicil uLoul lhis lhun is Coouin). Iiunlly, I'm nol suie hov lo unueislunu lhis uislinclion oi ils ielevunce. Peihus one exloils u eison iulhei lhun jusl one of his ulliiLules vhen one exloils un ulliiLule lhul is conslilulive of lhul eison's iuenlily. Bul suiely lhis is nol ulvuys viong. Even if my muscului fiienu is u iofessionul sliongmun vho lules his slienglh veiy seiiously, il uoesn'l seem lhul I viongly exloil him meiely Ly huving him move my iuno. See IeinLeig, J., Harmless Wrongdoing (Nev Yoil. Cxfoiu Univeisily Piess, rq88), . r;;, Coouin, R., 'Exloiling u Siluulion unu Exloiling u Peison', in Reeve, A., Modern Theories of Exploitation (Lonuon. Suge PuLliculions, rq8;), . r;r8. xiin.ii v.iix.N A Theory of Wrongful Exploitationiniiosoinins' ixiniN+ voi. q, No. 6 (Uiv zooq)lhe iessuie on C lo ullov D lo oeiule voulu Le us inlense us vus lhe iessuie on B lo uccel A's ofei. Suiely, hovevei, ve shoulun'l suy lhul if D oeiules on C, he necessarily uoes so vilhoul C's consenl.7 Clheivise ve voulu huve lo suy lhul muny iouline life-suving oeiu-lions uie non-consensuul, vhich voulu Le uLsuiu. Iolloving Alun Weilheimei, I suggesl lhul ve lieul cuses lile lhe Anliuole cuse cuses of consensuul unu muluully Lenefciul yel viongful exloilulion us oui uiuuigm cuses of viongful exloi-lulion unu lhul ve Luse oui unulysis of exloilulion's viongness on lhem.S This vuy ve uvoiu Lecoming uisliucleu Ly viong-muling fuc-lois lile huim oi non-consenl, vhich, us lhe Anliuole cuse ieveuls, uie nol essenliul lo viongful exloilulion. Though exloilulion is oflen huimful unu non-consensuul, il is Lesl lo seel un uccounl of ils viong-ness elsevheie so us nol lo mislule lhe souice of lhe viongness. Whul, lhen, Lesl exluins vhy A ucleu viongly in lhe Anliuole cuse` I vill uigue lhul his conuucl's viongness lies in his violulion of u prima facie moiul oLligulion nol lo exliucl excessive Lenefls fiom eole vho cunnol, oi cunnol ieusonuLly, iefuse oui ofeis (cull lhis the Obligation, foi shoil). I Legin, hovevei, Ly consiueiing foui ullei-nulive ioosuls, none of vhich cun fully exluin lhe viongness of A's conuucl. A. Promoting Overall UtilityMuny Lelieve lhul ve huve ul leusl u prima facie moiul oLligulion lo iomole oveiull ulilily, eseciully vhen ve cun uo lhis vilhoul signif-cunl eisonul suciifce. Bul vhile lhis mighl exluin vhy il voulu huve Leen viong foi A nol lo liunsucl vilh B, il cun'l exluin lhe viongness of A's exloilulion of B. Huu A ignoieu B's ciies foi hel, he voulu huve misseu un ooilunily foi u muluully Lenefciul exchunge unu ;. Weilheimei uses u similui cuse lo uigue lhul uecisions muue unuei inlense iessuie uien'l necessuiily coeiceu. I uisugiee in lhul I lhinl lhul such ue-cisions uie coeiceu, Lul lhul coeicion cun Le comuliLle vilh consenl. See Weilheimei, A., Exploitation (Piincelon. Piincelon Univeisily Piess, rqq6), . rro.8. Ibid., . rr6. Liouuly lo covei ull use lhul secuies oi exliucls Lenefls. Such u viev hus no ioLlem hunuling lhe ufoiemenlioneu cuses of lhe Luiglui, ic-niclei, olei luyei, hilosohei, oi lhe migiuling Liius. 2. Wrongful Exploitation Secuiing oi exliucling Lenefls fiom one's use of eole oi lheii ullii-Lules cun Le viong. Il is oflen viong vhen lhe useu eison is huimeu oi is useu vilhoul his consenl. Bul il cun ulso Le viong vhen lhe useu eison consenls lo unu Lenefls fiom lhe use. Consiuei, foi inslunce, lhe Antidote cuse. Peison B is Lillen Ly u iuie oisonous snule vhile hiling in u iemole foiesl. His ueulh is imminenl. Ioilunulely, unolhei hilei, A, huens Ly unu ofeis lo sell B lhe unliuole (in ull of my ex-umles A vill Le lhe exloilei unu B vill Le lhe exloileu). Though il ieluils foi $ro, A insisls lhul he vill uccel no less lhun $zo,ooo. Since B voulu iulhei lose his money lhun his life, he uccels A's of-fei. Heie A viongly exloileu B. Inueeu, lhis is uLoul us cleui u cuse of viongful exloilulion us I cun imugine. If some lheoiy suggesleu olheivise, I voulu lule lhul us eviuence uguinsl il. Neveilheless, lhe exchunge Lelveen A unu B vus consensuul unu muluully Lenefciul. Il vus muluully Lenefciul Lecuuse Lolh uilies Lenefleu ielulive lo lhe non-liunsuclion Luseline oi ielulive lo hov lhey voulu huve fuieu huu lhey nol liunsucleu vilh euch olhei.6 Il vus consensuul Lecuuse Lolh uilies lnovingly unu fieely ucceleu lhe ueul's leims. Some voulu uisule lhis, uiguing lhul lhe inlense iessuie on B lo liunsucl muue lhis liunsuclion coeicive oi non-consensuul. Nolice fisl, hovevei, lhul lhis iessuie uiu nol come fiom A, A uiu nol coeice oi lhieulen B in lhe munnei of u gun-vieluing lhief. Anu seconu, il uoes nol seem lhul, in ilself, exlieme iessuie lo liunsucl is u consenl-uefeulei. Aflei ull, if C's uenuix is uLoul lo Luisl, unu D is lhe only uvuiluLle suigeon, 6. Some cluim lhul exloilulion musl huim lhe exloileu unu so cunnol Le mu-luully Lenefciul. I lhinl, hovevei, lhul lhe Anliuole cuse shovs olheivise. Those vho uisugiee incluue Buchunun, A., Ithics, Iqcicnc, un! thc Mur|cts, (Rovmun unu Lilllefelu, rq8j), . 8;, Toimey, J., Exloilulion, Ciession unu Self-Suciifce', Philosophical Forum (rq;). zo;o8, . zo6, Munzei, S., A Theory of Property, (CumLiiuge. CumLiiuge Univeisily Piess, rqqo), . r;r. xiin.ii v.iix.N A Theory of Wrongful Exploitationiniiosoinins' ixiniN+ voi. q, No. 6 (Uiv zooq)munifeslulions. Suiely lhe luige uiscieuncy Lelveen lhe unliuole's ieluil iice unu A's usling iice conliiLules lo oui conuemnulion of his conuucl, Lul il is nol cleui lhul un oLligulion lo iescue cun uccounl foi lhis since lhis oLligulion voulu huve Leen violuleu huu A chuigeu B any umounl ovei lhe cosl of iescue. Seconu, unu moie imoilunl, oui conuemnulion of A is Luseu moie on lhe fucl lhul he useu B's ueseiu-lion us un ooilunily lo mule excessive iofls iulhei lhun on lhe fucl lhul he uemunueu moie fiom B lhun lhe cosls involveu in iescuing him. To see lhis, consiuei u cuse vheie un oLligulion lo iescue unu un oLligulion nol lo exloil come uuil u cuse vheie iescuing some-one uoes iequiie u moiully signifcunl suciifce. Suose lhul Sleve is uiovning in iough, uungeious vuleis, unu lhul BoL, u meuiocie svimmei, is lhe only olenliul iescuei uiounu. Heie il seems lhul BoL voulu nol Le moiully oLliguleu lo come lo Sleve's uiu. Suiely, hovevei, il voulu slill Le viong foi BoL lo luin Sleve's lighl lo his uuvunluge, suy, Ly ofeiing lo hel Lul only foi u iice lhul fui exceeus vhul voulu ieusonuLly comensule him foi lhe iisls involveu. Cne cun viongly exloil unolhei, il seems, even if one is nol moiully oLliguleu lo iescue him. This suggesls lhul un oLligulion lo iescue, no mullei hov il is cusheu oul, cunnol fully exluin lhe viongness of A's conuucl in lhe Anliuole cuse. Il mighl exluin vhy il voulu huve Leen viong foi A lo ignoie B oi lo iefuse lo ussisl him, Lul il uoes nol culuie lhe seciul viongness of luining someone's lighl lo one's uuvunluge. Inleieslingly, uislinguishing un oLligulion lo iescue fiom un oLli-gulion nol lo exloil cusls uouLl on Weilheimei's ulleml lo exluin lhe viongness in cuses lile lhe Anliuole cuse vilh lhe concel of u coeicive ofei'.l0 To illusliule, suose lhul I iomise lo uiive Joe lo lhe uiioil foi fiee, Lul vhen I icl him u I iequesl $jo foi lhe lii. If I huun'l ulieuuy iomiseu lo uiive him foi fiee, my iequesl voulu Le un ofei, since non-comliunce voulu nol leuve Joe voise of ielu-live lo lhe non-liunsuclion Luseline. Bul since I huve ulieuuy iom-iseu lo uiive him foi fiee, my iequesl is closei lo u lhieul, since his ro. Weilheimei (rqq6), . rror. See ulso Weilheimei, A., Coercion (Piincelon. Piincelon Univeisily Piess, rq8;), ch. rr. lhus un ooilunily lo iomole ulilily, Lul h...</p>