V1 Go-No Go

Download V1 Go-No Go

Post on 03-Mar-2015

259 views

Category:

Documents

2 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

<p>FLIGHT OPERATIONS ENGINEERING</p> <p>V1 Go-No GoPerformance Engineer Operations</p> <p>Bruce LindstromFlight Operations EngineeringBoeing Commercial Airplanes September 2009</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>1</p> <p>DAILY NEWS35 cents</p> <p>NEW YORKS PICTURE NEWSPAPER</p> <p>Friday, September 22, 1989</p> <p>RT CO O N T A C -R E IN CID LA UE E T TO NT ED OCS CU R!</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>2</p> <p>Objectives</p> <p> Stress the importance of V1 Learn from Statistics of past Rejected Takeoff (RTO) accidents and incidents Educate for a better Go/No Go decision Avoid future overruns and RTOs!</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>3</p> <p>Reasons for RTOs?</p> <p>NTSB post accident/incident discoveries Rejects were unnecessary V1 technique improper The NTSB concluded: Pilots faced with unusual or unique situations may perform high-speed RTOs unnecessarily or may perform them improperly. February 1990</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>4</p> <p>The Human Factor Approach</p> <p>Takeoff Safety</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>5</p> <p>Takeoff Safety Training Aid Development 1990 - 1992</p> <p>Draft review mailing grew to 137 35 airlines (12 U.S.) 3 pilot associations 7 government agencies 5 industry associations 10 manufacturers</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>6</p> <p>Takeoff Safety Training Aid Contents</p> <p>Section 1 Overview for Management Section 2 Pilot Guide to Takeoff Safety Section 3 Example Takeoff Safety Training Program Section 4 Takeoff Safety - Background Data Video Rejected Takeoff and the Go/No-Go Decision</p> <p>Flexibility to incorporate lessons into your initial, transition, and recurrent training programs to meet your needs.</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>7</p> <p>Objectives of Takeoff Safety Training Aid</p> <p> Benefit from Lessons Learned Past Accidents RTO Safety Task Force Pilot Performance Study Improve ability of pilots to take maximum advantage of all takeoff performance margins Make best Go/No-Go decisions Effectively accomplish related procedure</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>8</p> <p>97 RTO Overrun Accidents/Incidents Since 1959</p> <p>74 overruns included in original NTSB study 23 overruns since NTSB study</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>9</p> <p>Takeoffs, RTOs, and Overruns</p> <p>Through 2003 Takeoffs RTOs (estimate) RTO Overrun Accidents/Incidents 430,000,000 143,000 97</p> <p>Typical Recent Year 18,000,000 6,000 4</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>10</p> <p>Takeoffs and RTO Overrun Incidents/Accidents ( By Decade )7 6 5 4.2 Rate per 10 million takeoffs 4 3 2 1 0 19 1960sDecade 1960 - 1969 1970 - 1979 1980 - 1989 1990 - 1999 Departures 19,045,363 75,984,954 108,963,013 161,957,587</p> <p>6.3</p> <p>162</p> <p>180 160 140 120 100 Millions of takeoffs 80 60</p> <p>109 76</p> <p>2.6 1.4</p> <p>40 20 0</p> <p>1970s</p> <p>1980s</p> <p>1990s</p> <p>RTO overrun accidents/incidents per 10 million takeoffsRTO overrun accidents/incidents Rate per 10 million takeoffs 12 32 28 22 6.3 4.2 2.6 1.411</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>Total Industry RTOsAs a Function of Speed80 76% 60 Percent of total RTO overrun accidents principally come from the 2% of the RTO's that are high speed 18% 4% 0 80 knots or less 80 to 100 knots 100 to 120 knots Above 120 knots 2%</p> <p>40</p> <p>20</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>12</p> <p>RTO Accidents/Incidents - 97 EventsInitiation Speed</p> <p>Unknown</p> <p>21%Greater than V1</p> <p>Less than/ equal to V1</p> <p>55%</p> <p>25%</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>13</p> <p>RTO Accidents/Incidents - 97 EventsRunway Condition</p> <p>Not reported</p> <p>Dry</p> <p>30%Snow</p> <p>38%</p> <p>8%</p> <p>Wet</p> <p>24%</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>14</p> <p>Reasons for Initiating RTO 97 Events</p> <p>Engine Wheel/tire Configuration Indicator/light Crew coordination Bird strike ATC Other/not reported0 52% 11% 7% 10% 12% 14%</p> <p>21% 22%</p> <p>Engine 21% Non-Engine* 79%</p> <p>10</p> <p>15</p> <p>20</p> <p>*Including events Not reported</p> <p>Percent of total (97 events)</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>15</p> <p>Review of the 97 Events Revealed: 82% were avoidableBy continuing the takeoff</p> <p>52%By better preflight planning Unavoidable</p> <p>18%</p> <p>15%By correct stop techniques</p> <p>15%For Training Purposes Only Copyright 2009 Boeing All Rights Reserved 16</p> <p>What Do The Statistics Mean? RTOs are not common Infrequency leads to complacency Pilot must be prepared</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>17</p> <p>Key Subjects for Flight Crews</p> <p> Regulatory Rules and Certification Criteria Takeoff Performance Effects of Airplane and System Configuration Takeoff Safety Margins</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>18</p> <p>Decision Time?Oops, I think I should have already made my decision</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>19</p> <p>V1 Misnomer and Definition</p> <p>V1 is interpreted differently: Pilots Engineers Regulatory Agencies</p> <p>V1 - is the speed at which the takeoff should be continued unless the stopping maneuver has already been initiated.</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>20</p> <p>V1 Is Two Concepts</p> <p>V1 - Stop ( Maximum STOP Speed )</p> <p>V1 - Go ( Minimum GO Speed )35 ft</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>21</p> <p>Historical FAR V1 Definition :(Prior to March 1, 1978)[FAR Paragraph 25.107(a)] V1 Critical engine failure speed. V1 is the critical engine failure speed. It shall not be less than the minimum speed at which controllability by aerodynamic controls alone is demonstrated during the takeoff run to be adequate to permit proceeding safely with the takeoff using average pilot skill, when the critical engine is suddenly made inoperative.</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>22</p> <p>Historical FAR V1 Definition :(March 1, 1978)[FAR Paragraph 25.107(a)(2)] V1 Takeoff decision speed. It cannot be less than VEF plus the speed gained with the critical engine inoperative during the time interval between the instant the critical engine has failed and the instant the pilot has recognized and reacted to the engine failure by application of the first retarding means.</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>23</p> <p>Current FAR V1 Definition :(March 20, 1998)[FAR Paragraph 25.107(a)(2)] V1 No longer described as Takeoff decision speed It cannot be less than VEF plus the speed gained with the critical engine inoperative during the time interval between the instant the critical engine has failed and the instant the pilot has recognized and reacted to the engine failure, as indicated by the pilots initiation of the first action to stop the airplane.</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>24</p> <p>Takeoff RulesFAR Takeoff Field Length (Case #1) 35 feet V2 + 10 to 25 knots* *(Varies with airplane type) All engines Go Distance V1 VR VLOF</p> <p>+15% Actual distance * 1.15</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>25</p> <p>Takeoff RulesFAR Takeoff Field Length (Case #2)</p> <p> 35 feet One engine inoperative Accelerate-Go Distance V1 VEF VR VLOF V2</p> <p>1 sec</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>26</p> <p>Takeoff Rules</p> <p>FAR Takeoff Field Length (Case #3) One engine inoperative/ all-engine Accelerate-Stop Distance</p> <p>V event</p> <p>V1</p> <p>RTO transition complete</p> <p>1 sec</p> <p>Stop Transition</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>27</p> <p>Takeoff RulesFAR Takeoff Field LengthAll engines Go Distance (115% actual) 35 feet V2 + 10 to 25 knots* *(Varies with airplane type)</p> <p>1.15 times the actual distance 35 feet One engine inoperative Accelerate-Go Distance V1 VEF VR VLOF V2</p> <p>1 sec One engine inoperative/ all engine Accelerate-Stop Distance V1 VEVENT</p> <p>RTO transition complete</p> <p>Stop Transition 1 secFor Training Purposes Only Copyright 2009 Boeing All Rights Reserved 28</p> <p>Transition to Stopping Configuration</p> <p>Distance allowance Decision V1</p> <p>Brakes applied</p> <p>Speedbrakes raised</p> <p>Thrust levers to idleFor Training Purposes Only Copyright 2009 Boeing All Rights Reserved 29</p> <p>Rejected Takeoff SequenceEngine failure Flt Test demonstrated transition1 to 1.4 seconds Full braking configuration</p> <p>Certification Flight Testup kes bra eed Sp dle to i es n ottl Thr akes o Br</p> <p>Se rv ic</p> <p>e</p> <p>all ow an c</p> <p>e</p> <p>Full braking configuration AFM ExpansionRecognition ( min 1 second) F/T Demo 2.0 seconds</p> <p>V1 AFM expansion approximately 4 seconds</p> <p>Time</p> <p>Dry runway performance in AFM does not include thrust reverser creditFor Training Purposes Only Copyright 2009 Boeing All Rights Reserved</p> <p>30</p> <p>Model Specific Transition Times</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>31</p> <p>Accelerate-Stop Transition DistancePre 1981707, 727, 737-100/200 747-100/200/SP/300 VEF DC-8, DC-9, DC-10 MD-80 1 sec V1 3 sec (typical) Typically 130 400 ft shorter Throttle 2 sec at VB Speed brakes Typically 60 100 ft shorter Typically 100 -150 ft longer</p> <p>Post 1981757, 767, 747-400 737-300/400/500 VEF</p> <p>Brakes Flt test transition</p> <p>Amendment 25-42777-200/300 (1995) MD-11, MD-90 VEVENT 2 sec continued acceleration 2 sec at V1 Flt test transition</p> <p>Amendment 25-92737 NG, 757-300 767-400 (1998), 717 VEVENT</p> <p>Flt test transition Baseline</p> <p>AccelerationFor Training Purposes Only</p> <p>Transition Copyright 2009 Boeing All Rights Reserved</p> <p>Stopping32</p> <p>Takeoff Safety Training Aid Video</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>33</p> <p>Key Subjects for Flight Crews</p> <p> Regulatory Rules and Certification Criteria Takeoff Performance Effects of Airplane and System Configuration Takeoff Safety Margins</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>34</p> <p>Maximum Allowable Takeoff WeightLowest of all the weight limitations Performance (Varies from day-to-day) Runway Field Length Tire Speed Brake Energy Obstacle Climb Structural (AFM Restriction Maximum Certified) Other Noise Runway Loading Landing at destination Enroute Requirements35</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>Effect of V1 Speed on Takeoff Weight (for a fixed runway length)</p> <p>115% all-engineIncreasing Continued takeoff Field limit weight Balanced field V1 speed Climb Limit</p> <p>Airplane weight</p> <p>Rejected takeoff Increasing</p> <p>V1 speed</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>36</p> <p>Balanced Field</p> <p>Engine-out go distance = Accelerate-stop distance But the actual runway available is usually longer than the minimum Balanced Field Length Required</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>37</p> <p>Details of the Go versus Stop Decision 35 feet One engine inoperative Accelerate-Go Distance V1 VEF VR VLOF V2</p> <p>1 second minimum</p> <p>Accelerate-Stop Distance</p> <p>V1 VEVENT</p> <p>RTO transition complete (AFM)</p> <p>1 second minimum Runway used to accelerate to V1 (typically 60%)</p> <p>Stop Transition Runway available to Go/Stop (typically 40%)38</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>Climb Gradients</p> <p>Minimum gradient required 4 engine</p> <p>Typical rate of climb</p> <p>3%520 FPM at V2~170 knots</p> <p>3 engine 2 engine</p> <p>2.7%440 FPM at V2~160 knots</p> <p>2.4%360 FPM at V2~150 knots</p> <p>15 degree bank turn will reduce these climb rates by approximately 100 FPM</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>39</p> <p>Runway Surface Condition Wet or Contaminated</p> <p>Affects friction between runway and tires</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>40</p> <p>Dynamic Hydroplaning Tire Braking Virtually Eliminated Highly Sensitive to Speed</p> <p>Flooded runway</p> <p>Must Apply Steady Brake Pressure!</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>41</p> <p>Key Subjects for Flight Crews</p> <p> Regulatory Rules and Certification Criteria Takeoff Performance Effects of Airplane and System Configuration Takeoff Safety Margins</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>42</p> <p>Maximum Stopping Performance</p> <p> Max brakes Thrust idle Speedbrakes Reverse thrust</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>43</p> <p>Tires and BrakesHeat BuildupExcessive braking</p> <p>Long taxi</p> <p>Foreign objects</p> <p>Visual InspectionWheel cracksFor Training Purposes Only Copyright 2009 Boeing All Rights Reserved 44</p> <p>Residual Brake Energy Observe Brake Temperature Limitations and/or Minimum Cooling Times</p> <p> Follow Maximum Quick Turnaround Weight (MQTW) ChartFor Training Purposes Only Copyright 2009 Boeing All Rights Reserved 45</p> <p>Go and Stop Margins with a Tire Failure Takeoff flaps Certified performance Dry runway Field length limit weight Go Engine fails VEF V1 Transition complete Full stopping no reverse Approx 150 ft VR 35 ft</p> <p>Reject</p> <p>Go Same initial conditions Landing flaps Certified performance less blown tire effects Takeoff weight minus burnoff and fuel dump (opt) 40 to 60% Tire fails</p> <p>VR</p> <p>V1 Transition complete Reduced braking capability plus all Reject engine reverse</p> <p>40 to 60 kts 300 to 500 ft overrun</p> <p>50 ft</p> <p>Stop Zone</p> <p>Margin 60 to 40 %All Rights Reserved 46</p> <p>Available RunwayFor Training Purposes Only Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>Speedbrakes</p> <p>Stopping with airplane brakes but no speedbrakes60-70 kts</p> <p>400- to 600-feet overrun</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>47</p> <p>Speedbrake EffectsWeight on tire Forward motion Rolling Total stopping force capability 34% increaseBraking force</p> <p>Speedbrakes down Speedbrakes up Drag Brakes</p> <p>Lift</p> <p>Brake torque (Braking force = braking friction x load on tire)** Brake torque not limiting</p> <p>Drag</p> <p>Brakes</p> <p>Load on wheels</p> <p>Speedbrake position Down Up 14,700 lbs -1,200 194,800 98,000 112,700 8,500 lbs 52,000 lbs 141,600 75,500 84,400</p> <p>Difference speedbrake up +73% -102% +38% +29% +34%</p> <p>Drag Lift Net load on wheels Maximum braking force Maximum stopping force (brakes and drag)</p> <p>For Training Purposes Only</p> <p> Copyright 2009 Boeing</p> <p>All Rights Reserved</p> <p>48</p> <p>Speedbrakes Versus Rever...</p>