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UsingSourcesDirectQuotation,Paraphrase,SummaryTherearethreewaysofincorporatinganotherwritersworkintoyourownwriting:directquotation,paraphrase,andsummary.Tousesourcesmosteffectively,understandthepurpose,theirtechniques,andthedistinctionsbetweenthethreeways.DirectQuotationHowtodirectlyquote: Copythematerialprecisely,usingtheauthorsexactwording,spelling,andpunctuation. Usequotationmarksaroundthequote.Ifyouaddwordsforclarity,usebracketsaroundyouradditions. Givecredittothesource.Providealeadinandanendsentencecitation.Forexample:Originalsentencefromsourceessay:Myfatherlovedbooks,andsinceIlovedmyfatherwithanachingdevotion,Idecidedtolovebooksaswell.Quotingthesentence:AlexieexplainsthatMyfatherlovedbooks,andsinceIlovedmyfatherwithanachingdevotion,Idecidedtolovebooksaswell(1401).ParaphraseHowtoparaphrasethesource: Useyourownwords. Clearlyrepresentthesourceideainthesamegenerallength. Givecredittothesource.Providealeadinandendsentencecitation.Forexample:Originalsentencefromsourceessay:Myfatherlovedbooks,andsinceIlovedmyfatherwithanachingdevotion,Idecidedtolovebooksaswell.Paraphrasingthesourcesentence:Alexieexplainsthatheimitatedhisfathersloveofreadingbecausehedeeplylovedhisfather(1401).SummaryHowtosummarizethesource: Useyourownwords. Condensetheoriginalbystatingthemainandsupportingpoints. Givecredittothesource.Providealeadinandendsentencecitation.Forexample:Originalsourceessay:ShermanAlexiesSupermanandMeSummarizingtheessay:InhisessaySupermanandMe,ShermanAlexieillustratesthepowerofreadingandwritingforNativeAmericans.Source:ShermanAlexie,SupermanandMe,inTheStoryandItsWriter,7thedition,NewYork:Bedford/St.Martins,2007,pages14011402.DirectQuotationWhatisaDirectQuotation?Adirectquotationisadirectrestatementofanauthorswords.Adirectquotationmustmatchthesourcewordforwork,letterforletter,andmustbeintroducedandconcludedwithquotationmarks.WhatisthePurpose/ValueofaDirectQuotation? Adirectquotationisusefulwhentheoriginalwritingisuniquelymoreeffectivethanparaphrasing. Adirectquotationintroducingorfollowingyourownpointstrengthensandenhancesyourpoint.Howdoyoudirectlyquote? Selectdirectquotationstosupportthepointyouaremaking.Usequotationssparingly Readtheauthorspassageclosely.Becertainthatyouunderstandtheauthorsmeaning. Rememberthatadirectquotationshouldduplicatethesourceexactly.Bevigilantincopyingcorrectlyandthencheckyourcopy. Integrateyourquotationeffectively.Yourreaderwillbeconfusedifyoudonotintroducethedirectquoteorintegratethequotesmoothlyintothepointyouaremakinginyourwriting. Effectivequotationsinwritingmakeuseofsignalphrases.Signalphrasescontain1)thesourceauthorsnameand2)averbthatindicatesthesourceauthorsattitudetowhatheorshewrites.(Forassistancewithsignalphrases,refertoLBBrief,pages466468.) Toavoidplagiarism,providealeadinandanendsentencecitation.Howdoyouintegratequotationseffectivelyintoyourownwriting? Neversimplyplaceadirectquotationwithinyourwritingwithoutintroducingthesourceand/orwithoutgivinganendsentencecitation.Forexample,neverdothis:Alexieconcludeshisessaywithaclaim.Iamtryingtosaveourlives.HisclaimisthaturgingIndianyouthtovalueliteracywillsavetheirlives. Youmayplaceaquotationanywhereinyoursentence.Forexample:o Atthebeginning:Iamtryingtosaveourlives,Alexieexhortsattheconclusionofhisessay(Superman1402).o Inthemiddle:AlexieconcludeshisessaywiththeclaimthatIamtryingtosaveourlivesbyurgingIndianyouthtovalueliteracy(Superman1402).o Attheend:AlexieconcludeshisessaywiththeclaimthatbyurgingIndianyouthtovalueliteracy,heistryingtosaveourlives(Superman1402).ParaphraseWhatisaParaphrase?Aparaphraseisarestatementofanauthorsideainyourownwordsingenerallythesamelengthastheauthors.WhatisthePurpose/ValueofaParaphrase? Paraphrasingisusefulwhenyoudliketorepresenttheauthorsidea,butdontfeeltheoriginalwordingmeritsadirectquotation. Paraphrasingallowsyoutoincludedetailsandspecificsasyoufocusonanauthorsideainyourownwriting.Howdoyouparaphraseanauthorswrittenidea? Readtheauthorspassageclosely.Rereadthepassageandbecertainthatyouunderstandthewritersmeaning. Restatetheauthorsideainyourownwords. Youdontneedtofollowthesentencestructureoftheoriginal,nordoyouneedtoincludeallthespecificsordetailsintheoriginal.Selectandincludewhatisimportanttothepointyouaremakinginyourownwriting. Toclarifywhereyourparaphrasebeginsandends,andtoavoidplagiarism,providealeadinandanendsentencecitation.Whatisthedifferencebetweenasummaryandaparaphrase?Asummarycondensestheoriginalmaterial;aparaphraserestatesthesourceingenerallythesamelength.Forexample:Source:Myfather,whoisoneofthefewIndianswhowenttoCatholicschoolonpurpose,wasanavidreaderofwesterns,spythrillers,murdermysteries,gangsterepics,basketballplayerbiographies,andanythingelsehecouldfind.HeboughthisbooksbythepoundatDutchsPawnShop,Goodwill,SalvationArmy,andValueVillage.Whenhehadextramoney,heboughtnewnovelsatsupermarkets,conveniencestores,andhospitalgiftshops.Ourhousewasfilledwithbooks.Theywerestackedincrazypilesinthebathroom,bedrooms,andlivingroom.Inafitofunemploymentinspiredcreativeenergy,myfatherbuiltasetofbookshelvesandsoonfilledthemwitharandomassortmentofbooksabouttheKennedyassassination,Watergate,theVietnamWar,andtheentiretwentythreebookseriesoftheApachewesterns.Myfatherlovedbooks,andsinceIlovedmyfatherwithanachingdevotion,Idecidedtolovebooksaswell.Summary:Alexieremembersthathisfatherfilledtheirliveswithbooksofallkinds,modelingforadevotedsontheloveofbooks(1401).Source:Myfatherlovedbooks,andsinceIlovedmyfatherwithanachingdevotion,Idecidedtolovebooksaswell.Paraphrase:Alexieexplainsthatheimitatedhisfathersloveofreadingbecausehedeeplylovedhisfather(1401).SummaryWritingThepurposeofthishandoutistoexploresummarywriting,animportantgenreofwritingthatisoften used in business, scientific inquiry, and education. By learning how to summarizemoreeffectively, you will get more out of the things you read and be able to share what youvelearnedmoresuccessfullywithothers.Asummaryrestatesanothersworkinyourownwords.Asyousummarize,youstatethemainideaandsupportingpointsofyoursource in theorderof theoriginal. ThepoetX.J.Kennedydefines summary in this way: You take the essence of the authors meaning, without thesupportingevidenceandotherdetailsthatmakethatgistconvincingorinteresting(18).WhySummarize? Summarizing isoneof thebest strategies tobecomeabetter,morecriticalreader. Summarizing illustratesyourclearunderstandingof thesourcework. Summarizing is a useful step in exam preparation: bysummarizing you create your own condensed/shortenedversionofthesource,aversionwhichyoucanrefertolaterasyoustudythematerial. Summarizingwillfocusyourattentiononhowthesourceworkis organized, a focus which will strengthen your ownorganizationasawriter. Summarizing a source in your ownwords allows you tomakeclear distinctions between the ideas of others and your ownideas. Summarizing allows you to join the academic conversation byincorporating the ideasofothers (sourcework) into yourownwork.As you can see, summarizing has many benefits that not only help you better understandothersideas,butalsohelpyoubecomeabetter,moreactivereader.Becauseofthis,therearemanysituationswhereyoumayfindsummarywritinghelpful.WhatCanBeSummarized? Lectures,presentations Textbooks,courseprint,oronlinematerials Videoclips/audioclips Workshops Essays,journalarticles,etc.Basedonthesituation,youmayfinddifferentwaystobestcomposeyoursummaryand,whenasked to summarize for a class assignment, you should always follow your instructorsguidelines.Mostsummaries,however,followageneralformatthat,oncelearned,canhelpyousummarizemoreeffectivelyandinlesstime.Below,youllfindastepbystepguideonhowtowriteabasicsummarytohelpgetyoustarted.HOWTOWRITEASUMMARYStep1CriticalReading1. ReadtheattachedessaybyShermanAlexieclosely.Understandthewritersmeaning.Lookupwordsorconceptsthatyoudontknow.2. Rereadandannotatetheessay.3. Understandtheorganization.Workthroughtheessaytoidentifyitssections (single paragraphs or groups of paragraphs focused on asingletopic).4. Identifythemainideaforeachparagraph(orsection)andnotethatmainideainthemargin.5. Onaseparatesheetofpaper,writeaonesentencesummaryinyourown words for each paragraph. In this way, youll actually beoutliningtheessay.6. Rereadyouronesentencesummaryoutlineoftheessay.Nowthatyou understand the paragraph points clearly, youll be able tosynthesizethesepointsintoamainpointfortheentireessay.7. Atthetopofyouroutline,writethismainideaoftheentireessayinyourownwords.Onceyouvefinishedwiththeoutline,yourereadytobegindraftingthebodyofyoursummary.Atthisstage,youneedntworryaboutgrammarorpunctuation.Youresimplytryingtogetyourideasonpapersoyoucanbeginorganizinganddevelopingthem.Step2Drafting1. BeginwithaTopicSentencethatstatestheauthor,thetitle,andthemain idea of the essay. For example: In his essay Superman andMe,ShermanAlexieillustratesthepowerofreadingandwritingforNativeAmericans.2. Working from your outline, write out the paragraphsmain/supportingpointsinyourownwordsinthesameorderasthepointsappearintheessay.3. Remember thata summaryparagraph requiresmore than stringingtogethertheentriesinanoutline.Usetransitionstofillinthelogicalconnectionsbetweentheauthors ideas. (Forhelpwithtransitions,refertoLBBrief,pages5557.)4. Repeattheauthorsnamefromtimetotimefortransition,remindingyourreaderthattheideasaretheauthorsandnotyourown.Refertotheauthorbyname.Forexample:Alexieacknowledges,orAlexieexplains. (For help with signal phrases like this, refer to LB Brief,pages466467.)5. Refer to the author by last name, not first. For example, if theauthors name is Sherman Alexie, and youd like to shorten thereferencetoonename,writeAlexie,notSherman.6. If you use quotations in your summary, use them sparingly. In asummary paragraph of 10 12 sentences, use no more than twoquotations. (Forhelpwithquotationmarks, refer toLBBriefpages378382.)7. Integrate your quotations effectively. If you use fullsentencequotations, provide a leadin and an endsentence citation. (Forexamplesofleadinsandendsentencecitations,refertoLBBrief.)8. Writeaconclusionsentencethatsummarizesinyourownwordstheconclusionofthesource.Whenyouhaveyourroughdraftfinished,yourereadytobeginshapingandrefiningit.Again,dont spend time worrying about punctuation or grammar at this stage as you are likely tomodifyorremovelargepartsofyoursummaryasyourevise.Step3Revising1. Compare your summary version to the original essay. Have youremainedfaithfultotheessay?Iftheauthoroftheessayreadyoursummary,wouldheorshefeelwellrepresented?2. Rememberyouraudience:heorshehasnotreadthesourceessay.Haveyoumadeyoursummaryclearandunderstandabletosomeonewhohasnotreadtheoriginalessay?3. Haveyoubeencarefulnottoplagiarize?Ifyouusedthewordsoftheauthor,haveyouputthosewordsinquotationmarks?4. Have you refrained from including your own ideas, opinions, orinterpretations?Whenyouaresatisfiedwiththeshapeandsubstanceofyourparagraph,yourereadytostartputtingthefinishingtouchesonit.Itsoftenhelpfulatthisstagetoreadyoursummaryaloudorinviteotherstoreaditasthiscanhelpyouidentifyerrors.Step4Editing1. Bevigilantregardingyourfrequentgrammaticalerrors.2. Look out for the most common grammatical errors: fragments,commasplices, fusedsentences, comma errors, subjectverbagreementerrors,pronounerrors,apostropheerrors,spellingerrors.3. Check your format. If youve been asked to write a summaryparagraph,haveyouformattedyoursummaryinparagraphform?Ifyouvebeengivenaparticularlength(e.g.1012sentences)haveyoustayedwithintheseguidelines?Congratulations!Nowthatyouvefinishedyoursummary,yourereadytoshareitwithafriend,familymember,orteacher.WorksCitedAaron,JaneE.LBBrief.3rded.NewYork:Longman,2008.Driscoll,DanaL."Quoting,Paraphrasing,andSummarizing."TheOWLatPurdue.10Sep.2006.PurdueUniversity.10Oct.2008.SummarySupermanandMeIn his essay, Superman and Me,Sherman Alexie illustrates the power ofreading and writing for Native Americans.WhilegrowinguponanIndianReservation,Alexie learned how to read at the age ofthreebyusingSupermancomics.Hewritesthat he got his love of reading from hisfather who would buy his books by thepound from a number of stores. Theirhouse was filled with books ranging fromApache westerns to books on Watergate.Alexiedescribeshischildhoodsmomentofclaritywhenheunderstoodthemeaningoftheparagraph.Hewritesthathesoonsaweverything as interrelated paragraphs.AlthoughAlexiecouldnotyetreadwords,hecouldpiecetogetherthemeaningofthecomicthroughpictures.Ashecontinuedonhis reading journey, Alexie began readingclassics likeTheGrapesofWrathwhile theother children his age were beginning toreadDickandJane.Alexieremembersthathisabilitycausedresentmentfromhispeerswho constantly reminded him that as anIndian child, he was expected to bestupid. Alexie,however, refused to fail;insteadhewouldmake it his lifeswork tobeastrongreaderandasmartIndian.HeisalsocommittedtohelpingIndianyouth.HeconcludeshisessaybyexplainingthatheistryingtoreachallIndianyouth:Iamtryingtosaveourlives.Alexie, Sherman. Superman and Me.ExcerptedfromTheStoryandItsWriter,7thedition, edited by Ann Charters. Bedford:2007.ThishandoutdevelopedbyRobinHavenickandGregRathert,LinnBentonCommunityCollege,2008Clearandeffectivetopicsentenceincludesauthor,title,andmainidea.Transitionsusedtofillinthelogicalgapsbetweenideas.ContinuousremindersthatthisisasummaryandthattheseareAlexiespoints.ConclusionsummarizesAlexiesownconclusion.Accuratesourcecitation ResponseWritingInacademicassignments,responsewritingoftenaccompaniesasummary.Aninstructormightaskyoutoreadinformation,summarizeitforothers,andthenpresentyourresponsetoitsideas.Dependingonthepurposeandaudience,theformatforyourresponsemayvaryfromanessaytoasetofparagraphs(onesummary,oneresponse).Thishandoutoutlinesthestepsyoucouldtaketocomposeaparagraphresponse(buttheyrehelpfulincomposinganessayresponseaswell).Letsassumethatyouhavealreadycompletedacriticalreadingofthesourceandaclearsummaryparagraph.Inresponsewriting,aninstructorasksyoutorespondtotheideasinasourceessayoftentimesintheformofaprompt.Apromptisaguidedquestionorstatementthatelicitsafocusedwrittenresponse.Iftheinstructordoesnotprovideaprompt,thenthechallengeistodevelopyourownfocusedresponsetothesource.Also,keepinmindthevarietyofresponsesrequested.Somepromptsaskforacriticalresponse(e.g.explain,compare/contrast,analyze)whileothersaskforapersonalresponse(e.g.narrate,describe).Aftertherigorofsummarizing,manywritersfindresponsewritingmucheasiertocompose.HowtoWriteaResponse1. Beginbyreadingtheassignmentprompts.Note(underline,circle,highlight)keywordsinthepromptthatdirecttheformyourresponseshouldtake:e.g.narrate,describe,identify,illustrate.Readtheentirepromptclosely;payattentiontoallthequestionsincludedintheprompt.Oftenapromptwillincludeseveralquestionsdesignedtohelpyoudevelopideas;othertimesaninstructorexpectsthatyouwilladdresseachquestionintheprompt.Ifyouarentcertain,clarifyyourinstructorsexpectationsbyaskinghimorher.2. Brainstormorfreewriteideasthatthepromptgenerates.Thinkandwritedownallthespecificdetailsrelatedtoyourtopic.3. Organizeyourideasinalogical,coherent,andeffectivewaywitharoughoutline.4. Draftyourresponseparagraph.a. BeginwithaTopicSentence.Muchlikeathesisstatementassertsthemainideainanessay,yourtopicsentenceshouldassertthemainideaofyourresponseparagraph.Yourtopicsentenceinaresponseparagraphshouldalsoaccomplishthefollowing:a. Provideasmoothtransitionbetweenthesummaryparagraphandyourresponseparagraph.Thistransitionwillensurethatyourreaderunderstandswhenyourwritingmovesfromthesummaryofsomeoneelsesideastoyourownideas.b. Focusonyourmainideaandstatethatmainideapreciselyandeffectively.Allthesupportingpointsintheparagraphshouldsupportthistopicsentenceinafocusedway.b. Developyourparagraphwithdetailsthatsupportthefocus,followingyourroughoutline.Thelengthofthisparagraphshouldfollowassignmentguidelines.InWR115,thoseguidelinesrequireaminimumof12sentencesandamaximumof15sentences.c. Concludeyourparagrapheffectively.d. Reviseyourparagraph.a. Rereadthepromptandbecertainthatyourparagraphclearlyfocusesaresponsetotheprompt.b. Checkyourparagraphforlogicalandeffectivedevelopment,coherence(sentencesshouldlogicallyandcoherentlylink),andgrammaticallyeffectivewriting.c. Makesurethatyouhavenotsummarizedintheresponse.d. Shareyoudraftwithstudentcollaborators,WritingCenterAssistants,yourinstructor.SampleofResponseParagraphWritingHereisanexampleofaresponsepromptandaresponseparagraphtoShermanAlexiesSupermanandMe.Inthisexample,theinstructionsofferyouapromptchoice.Onceyouvedecidedonaquestiontorespondto,underlinethekeywords(forthisexample,youllseethattheyreinboldface).SamplePrompt:ChooseONEofthefollowingtofocusyourresponse:1.Howwasreadingviewedinyourhouseholdgrowingup?Explainthewaysinwhichreadingwaseitherimportantornotimportanttoyouasachild.2.Howimportantisreadingtoyounow?Narratearecentinstancethatdemonstrateseitherapositiveoranegativeexperiencewithreadingasyoufocusyourresponseontheimportance(orlackofimportance)youplaceonreadingnow.SampleResponsetoSupermanandMeLikeAlexie,Itoowaspromptedtoreadatanearlyageandinthemidstofadifficultchildhood.Ilearnedtoreadbeforestartingschool,mostlyasawaytohidefromtheworldthatwasgoingonaroundme.BooksweremywaytoescapefromthealcoholicabusivehouseholdIwasraisedin.I readalone,mostoften, outsideunder a favoriteoak treeorbehind closeddoors inside. Thisactivity gavemehoursofprivacyand suchgreatenjoyment. And themore I read, themore Iwantedtoread,whereverIwas.AsIgrewolderandbeganlivingonmyown,Irealizedthatallmyhoursofreadinghadpaidoff.TheknowledgeIgainedfromreadingshowedmethattherewasadifferent world out there. I didnt have to continue in the cycle of addiction and abuse. Byextendingmyeducation,Icouldsetanexampleformychildrenwho,inturn,woulddothesamefortheirchildrenaswell.Knowledgeandeducationhavehelpedmeliftmyselfaswellasothersaroundmeout of the recycling bin of despair andhas put us back on the shelf a brandnewproduct.Pointstoappreciateinthemodelparagraphabove: Topicsentenceprovidesasmoothtransitionbetweenthesummaryparagraphandtheresponseparagraph. TopicSentenceprovidesfocusforthisparagraph. Paragraphdevelopsdetailstosupportthefocus(topicsentence)oftheparagraph. Thesesupportingpointsandinterestingandclear. Theresponseparagraphanswerstheprompt(optionone). Paragraphbeginsclearlywithatopicsentenceandconcludeseffectively. Paragraphprovidescleartransitionalwordsbetweensentencestoprovidecoherence. Paragraphiseffectivelyorganized,welldeveloped,andgrammaticallycorrect.Using Sources Cover summaryDIRECT QUOTATIONSPARAPHRASINGSummary Writing 2Response Writing

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