urbanization: new york & chicago

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Urbanization: New York & Chicago. Hector Herrera Period 6. Causes of Urbanization. Urbanization: taking the characteristics of a city, the increasing number of people living in cities Technological boom contributed to growing industrial strength Demand for workers due to industrialization - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Urbanization: New York & Chicago

Urbanization: New York & ChicagoHector HerreraPeriod 6Causes of UrbanizationUrbanization: taking the characteristics of a city, the increasing number of people living in citiesTechnological boom contributed to growing industrial strengthDemand for workers due to industrializationCompanies offered jobs to unskilled laborersNY Advantages: location of its ports, growing capital market

ContinuedDiscovery of oilRailroad expansion connected many territories: national railway net supported urban growth, especially ChicagoConstruction: cities began to spread outward and upwardBetter transportation Immigration

Extent & DegreeU.S. received more migrants than the rest of the world- near 60%(NY) 1880-1900: population increased from 1.2 million to 3.4 millionChicago was the fastest growing city during this period(Chi) 1880-1900: population increased from .5 million to 1.7 millionChicago became known as the skyscraper craze (10-story Home insurance building)

ImmigrationMany moved into US for better opportunities and a promise of a better lifeMany left to escape bad conditions (famine, land shortages, religious prosecution) Birds of Passage: people who intended to migrate temporarily to make moneyHigher wages than in Europe, price of living and conditions were often the same

ContinuedEllis Island: immigrants feared not being admitted to the U.S.About 20% of the immigrants at Ellis Island were detained for over a day to be inspected2% of immigrants were denied entry

ContinuedProcess:-Had to pass a physical examination by a doctor; if you had a serious health problem, you were sent home-Reported to government inspector; checked documents and made sure they made legal requirements-Legal Requirements: not convicted of a felony, able to work, and show they had some amount of moneyContinued1890: twice as many Irish residents in NYC as in Dublin, Ireland(NY) 1900: 480,000 Germans and 425,000 Irish in city(Chi) 1900: 332,000 Germans and 129,000 Scandinavians in cityMany African-Americans also migrated into these cities

ContinuedAmericanization movement: designed to assimilate people of wide ranging cultures into dominant cultureEnglish classes & American History classesNavitism: favoring the interests of native-born people over foreign-born peoplePeople feared immigrants would overwhelm white American populationHousingCould either buy a house on outskirts of town, or they could rent cramped rooms in boarding housesImmigrants often took over old housings, 2-3 families in a one family houseTenements: Urban dwellingsTenement House Act: NYC passed a law that set minimum standards for plumbing and ventilation in apartmentsJacob Riis (1890): published How the other half lives

WaterFaced problem of supplying safe drinking waterNY built public waterworks to handle increasing demandShowering wasnt a daily thing, especially if in a tenementDisease Spread: Cholera & Typhoid Fever1870s: Filtration introduced 1880s: Chlorination - disinfect water with chlorine

SanitationNY: horse manure piled on streets, sewage overflew, factories released a lot of smokePeople dumped garbage on streetScavengers: people hired to sweep streets, collect garbage, didnt do job properlyBy 1900: many cities, including NY and Chicago developed sewer lines and sanitation departments

FireThe Great Chicago Fire: burned over 24 hours, killed around 300 people, more than 3 square miles of city destroyed, property damage of $20 million, 17500 buildings gone1874: wood replaced with bricks, stone, and concrete

CrimeBlack Hand extortion: criminal tactic, black hand was a precursor to a planned crimeGangs of young boys and men made Chicago a dangerous place (North Side Gang)6 month period in 1906: burglary every 3 hours, a hold up every 6 hours, and a murder each day

ContinuedHunting women and hitting them on the head with a piece of pipe seems to be the favorite sport of Chicago men.a reign of terror is upon the city..No city in time of peace ever held so high a place in the category of crime-ridden, terrorized murder-breeding cities as held by Chicago.Chicago TribuneCorruptionCorruption in NYC was prominentBoss Tweed: known as most corrupt politician in American History3rd largest land owner in NYCStole over $50 million by faking leases, paying for unnecessary repairs, and buying over priced goodsTammany Hall: helped Irish and German immigrants by providing shelter and jobs and helped them rise up in American Politics (Democratic)Chicago had similar issues; creation of parks and majestic buildings was solution

Settlement House ActSocial Gospel Movement: preached salvation through service to the poorSettlement houses created; community centers in poor neighborhoods, mainly helped immigrantsRan by middle class, educated womenSettlement houses provided educational, cultural, and social servicesCharles Stover and Stanton Coit found first settlement house in NYC (1886)Jane Addams and Ellen Gates found Chicagos Hull House in 18891910- 400 settlement houses in US

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