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  • UPSTATEPhotographyGroup

  • UPSTATEPhotographyGroup

    PostProcessing

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessing

    BasicsofImageEditingRasterImages:

    StoredinacomputerasagridofpictureelementsorPixels(Bitmap)

    Pixel=Pix(picture)+el(element) IndividualPixelsstorecolorandbrightness

    information Pixelscanbemodifiedindividuallyorasgroupsby

    animageeditingAlgorithm Resolutiondependent.MorePixels,betterimage.

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessing

    BasicsofImageEditingRasterImageEditors:

    Picasa(Google) Painter ADOBE:Elements,

    Photoshop,Lightroom Paint.NET MSPaint GIMP

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessing

    Overview:10PostProcessingSteps1. White Balance Temperatureandtintadjustmentsliders

    2. Exposure Exposurecompensation,highlight/shadowrecovery

    3. Noise Reduction DuringRAWdevelopmentorusingexternalsoftware

    4. Lens Correction Distortion,vignetting,chromaticaberrations

    5. Detail Capturesharpeningandlocalcontrastenhancement

    6. Contrast Blackpoint,levelsandcurvestools

    7. Framing Straightenandcrop

    8. Refinement Coloradjustmentsandselectiveenhancements

    9. Resizing Enlargeforaprintordownsizefortheweboremail

    10. Output Sharpening Dependsonsubjectmatterandprint/screensize

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessing

    1.WhiteBalance Maymakethesingle

    mostimportantimageimprovement

    AdjustTemperaturefirst(warmth),thenTint(Magenta/GreenShift)

    LearntousetheneutralgreyDroppertooltohelpsetWB

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessing

    2.Exposure:Compensation&Recovery UsetheHistogramas

    anobjectiveguide Whenviewing,usea

    smallviewtojudgeexposure

    Thereisnorightansweritspersonal

    Recoverblownhighlightsandshadowdetailwithfilllight,recoveryandblackpointtools

    Toomuchexposure=visiblenoiseintheshadows.

    Toolittleexposure=blownhighlights

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessing

    3.NoiseReduction Mosteffectivewhen

    appliedbeforeanyotherimageediting,rightafter1and2above

    HighISONoiseistheeasiesttoaddress

    SomenoiseisOKandtobeexpected

    ThereisdedicatedsoftwarejustforNoise.

    NoiseReductiongoeshandinhandwithSharpening;alwaysxcheckforimpact

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessing

    4.LensCorrections Vignetting:Usually

    productoflowfStops.SuperzoomlensescanproduceNoisenearthecorners.Usedcreativelytodrawattentiontothecenterofinterest.

    Distortion:PrevalentinWideAngleandTelephotowork.FoundAcceptableinLandscapesbutnotArchitecturalwork.

    ChromaticAberrations:AlsoknowasFringing.Useahighcontrastedgeneartheimagescornerasaguide.

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessing

    5.Details:Sharpening,Clarity Mosteffectivewhen

    appliedmorethanonceduringimageediting

    CaptureSharpeningcanbecontrolledincamera(JPGS)orinRAWprocessing(optimal)

    CreativeSharpeningisverytimeconsuming,andendlessoptionsexist;adjustmentbrushes,masks,etc.

    NegativeClarityisusedprofuselyinPortraiture.

    OutputSharpeningisrequiredtoaddressthespecificsoftheprintedimage;thepapertobeused,theprintsize,theviewingdistance,aswellasthefactthatviewingonamonitorwillnotadequatelyrepresentthefinalimage.

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessing

    6.Contrast:Levels&CurvesTools MostLevelToolswillmove

    andstretchbrightnesslevelsinaHistogramusingthreecomponents:BlackPoint,WhitePointandMidtonesSlider.

    Itisoftenbesttoadjustlevelssuchthatthehistogramextendsallthewayfromblack(0)towhite(255).

    NOTE:Imagestakeninfog,hazeorverysoftlight,however,oftenneverhavefullyblackorwhiteregions.

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessing

    6.Contrast:Levels&CurvesTools Thekeyconceptwithcurvesisthatyoucannever

    addcontrastinonetonalregionwithoutalsodecreasingitinanother.Inotherwords,thecurvestoolonlyredistributescontrast.

    Thecurvestoolcantakeinputtonesandselectivelystretchorcompressthem.

    DARK

    LIGHT

    SCurve=HighContrast

    InvertedSCurve=LowContrast

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessing

    7.Framing:Straighten&Crop Getfamiliarand

    experimentwiththeRuleofThirds

    BreaktheRuleofThirdsasrequiredtoachieveaspecificeffectorcommunicateastory

    Educateyoureyeonceyoufeelcomfortablewithaspecificgeometry,youstartframingtheshots

    Thereisnorightsize.orcroppingratio

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessing

    8.Refinements:ColorsandEnhancements Saturation,Vibrance&

    otherColorEnhancements:ShouldbeminimalifWBandExposure/Contrastarecorrect.Canbeusedcreativelytoenhancetheimpactoftheimage

    SpotRemoval/CreativeSharpening(Eyes!)andselectiveNoiseReduction(Skin/Sky)

    SaveacopyofyourImage:BynowtheImageeditingshouldbecompleteandtheremainingstepsareforthepurposesofPrintingorSharing.

    SensorDust

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessing

    9.Resizing:UpsizeforPrint,downsizeforWeb Itiskeytohavethefinalproductin

    mindwhenyousetyourfilesizesandchoseeitheraJPEGorRAWstorageformat.

    DigitalImageInterpolationallowsyoutoresizeafiletosupportitsfinalviewingrequirementsonceprinted.

    EnlargingforPrint shouldideallybedonebyyouinsoftware,notbythePrinter(toavoidPixelation)

    IfyoudonotshootRAW,disableordecreaseincamerasharpeningtoaminimum,saveathighestcompression,otherwiseJPEGartifactswillbemagnifiedsignificantly.

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessing

    9.Resizing:UpsizeforPrint,downsizeforWeb Moire (Moreay)isatypeofaliasing

    artifact,whichoftenoccurswhendownsizinganImage.Itshowsupintextureswhichareneartheresolutionlimit.Imageswithfinegeometricpattersareatthehighestrisk;theseincluderooftiles,distantbrickandwoodwork,wiremeshfences,andothers.

    AdownsizedimagecanbecomesignificantlylessSharp.

    Itmaybeadvisedtoapplyafollowupunsharpmaskafterresizinganimage,orapplyablurbeforedownsizing.

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessing

    10.OutputSharpening Outputsharpeningisgenerallytheverylast

    imageeditingstepappliedtoanimage. Itssettingsarethereforecustomizedfora

    particularoutputdevice,whichmayincludespecialconsiderationsbasedonthesize,typeandviewingdistanceofaprint.

    Therearemanycompetingsolutionsforoutputsharpening;itcanbeautomatedinLightroomorautomatedinPhotoshopwithpluginslikeNik SharpenerProorPixelGenius PhotoKit SharpeneroryourownActions.

    LightroomPrintModuleFinalPrintDialogBox

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessing

    WhichPostProcessingProgramtouse?

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessingPostProcessingSoftwarePoll:2009

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessingPostProcessingSoftwarePoll:2011

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessingPostProcessingSoftwarePoll:2013

    Pollsampling=+/ 27,000votes

    Pollsampling=+/ 27,000votes

    Pollsampling=+/ 27,000votes

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessing

    LightroomWorkflow

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessing

    CreativeCloud PhotoshopPhotographyProgram

    SpecialsingleapppricingonPhotoshopCC.LatestversionPhotoshopCC,plusPhotoshopLightroomandBridgeCC20GBofcloudstorageandaBehance ProSiteRequiresannualcommitment;billedmonthly

    US$9.99permonth

    Lightroom5 fullversion

    FullnewversionofLightroom5 Perpetuallicense

    US$149

  • UPSTATE PhotographyGroupPostProcessing

    ReferencesMuchofthediscussionmaterialcanbefoundat:

    digitalphotographyschool.comwww.cambridgeincolour.com