unto this last gandhi paraphrase

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8/10/2019 Unto This Last Gandhi Paraphrase http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/unto-this-last-gandhi-paraphrase 1/25 Unto This Last — M. K. Gandhi. Unto This Last written by Mohandas K. Gandhi, translated by Valji Govindji Desai 190. Translation !ro" the G#jarati. This is a re$rint o! the edition e%&e$t !or a !ew verbal alterations s#''ested by "y !riend (hri Verrier )lwin who was 'ood eno#'h to 'o thro#'h the translation at "y re*#est. (ee also the ori'inal in G#jarati+ સરદય ontents  -ntrod#&tion  Translators /ote  To The eader  -ntrod#&tion  )ssay - + The oots o! Tr#th  )ssay -- + The Veins o! ealth  )ssay --- + )ven23anded 4#sti&e  )ssay -V+ 5d valore"  on&l#sion -ntrod#&tion  Translators /ote -n a &ha$ter in his 5#tobio'ra$hy 67art -V, ha$ter 8V--- entitled :The Ma'i& ($ell o! a ;oo< Gandhiji tells #s how he read #s<ins Unto this Last on the twenty2!o#r ho#rs jo#rney !ro" 4ohannesb#r' to D#rban. The train rea&hed there in the evenin'. - &o#ld not 'et any slee$ that ni'ht. - deter"ined to &han'e "y li!e in a&&ordan&e with the ideals o! the boo<. ... - translated it later into G#jarati, entitlin' it (arvodaya. (arvodaya is here re2translated into )n'lish, #s<ins win'ed words bein' retained as !ar as $ossible. 5t the end o! that &ha$ter Gandhiji 'ives #s a s#""ary o! the tea&hin's o! Unto This Last as he #nderstood it + 1

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    Unto This Last M. K. Gandhi. Unto This Last

    written by Mohandas K. Gandhi, translated by Valji Govindji Desai

    190. Translation !ro" the G#jarati. This is a re$rint o! the edition e%&e$t !or

    a !ew verbal alterations s#''ested by "y !riend (hri Verrier )lwin who was

    'ood eno#'h to 'o thro#'h the translation at "y re*#est. (ee also theori'inal in G#jarati+

    ontents

    -ntrod#&tion

    Translators /ote

    To The eader

    -ntrod#&tion

    )ssay - + The oots o! Tr#th

    )ssay -- + The Veins o! ealth

    )ssay --- + )ven23anded 4#sti&e

    )ssay -V+ 5d valore"

    on&l#sion

    -ntrod#&tion

    Translators /ote

    -n a &ha$ter in his 5#tobio'ra$hy 67art -V, ha$ter 8V--- entitled :The Ma'i&

    ($ell o! a ;oo

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    1. The 'ood o! the individ#al is &ontained in the 'ood o! all.

    =. 5 lawyers wor< has the sa"e val#e as the barbers, as all have the sa"e

    ri'ht o! earnin' their livelihood !ro" their wor. 5 li!e o! labo#r, i.e. the li!e o! the tiller o! the soil and the handi&ra!ts"an

    is the li!e worth livin'.

    /othin' "ore need be said as re'ards the $ara$hrase o! #s

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    7eo$le in the est 'enerally hold that the whole d#ty o! "an is to $ro"ote

    the ha$$iness i! the "ajority o! "an

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    )ven i! we &onsider "en as a&t#ated by no other "oral inC#en&es than

    those whi&h aHe&t rats or swine, it &an never be shown 'enerally either that

    the interests o! "aster and labo#rer are ali

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    will be obtained !ro" the servant, and there!ore the 'reatest beneAt to the

    &o""#nity, and thro#'h the &o""#nity, to the servant hi"sel!.

    That however is not so. -t wo#ld be so i! the servant were an en'ine o! whi&h

    the "otive $ower was stea", "a'netis" or so"e s#&h a'ent o! &allable

    !or&e. ;#t on the &ontrary he is an en'ine whose "otive $ower is the (o#l.

    (o#l !or&e enters into all the e&ono"ists e*#ations witho#t his

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    (#$$osin' the oN&er only desires to a$$ly the r#les o! dis&i$line so as, with

    least tro#ble to hi"sel!, to "a

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    do not &anvass the &ab"en to And one who val#e his drivin' at less than

    si%$en&e a "ile.

    The best labo#r always has been, and is, as all labo#r o#'ht to be, $aid by

    an invariable standard.

    hat P the reader $erha$s answers a"aedly + to $ay 'ood and bad

    wor

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    /ot less is the res$e&t we $ay to the lawyer, $hysi&ian and &ler'y"an,

    !o#nded #lti"ately on their sel!2sa&riA&e. (et in a j#d'es seat, the lawyer

    will strive to j#d'e j#stly, &o"e o! it what "ay. The $hysi&ian will treat his

    $atients with &are, no "atter #nder what diNlties. The &ler'y"an will

    si"ilarly instr#&t his &on're'ation and dire&t it to the ri'ht $ath.

    5ll the eN&ient "e"bers o! these so2&alled learned $ro!essions are in $#bli&

    esti"ate o! hono#r $re!erred be!ore the head o! a &o""er&ial Ar", as the

    "er&hant is $res#"ed to a&t always selAshly. 3is wor< "ay be very

    ne&essary to the &o""#nity E b#t the "otive o! it is #nderstood to be wholly

    $ersonal. The "er&hants Arst obje&t in all his dealin's "#st be 6the $#bli&

    believe to 'et as "#&h !or hi"sel! and leave as little to his sto"er as

    $ossible. )n!or&in' this #$on hi", by $oliti&al stat#te, as the ne&essary

    $rin&i$le o! his a&tion E re&o""endin' it to hi", and the"selves re&i$ro&ally

    ado$tin' it, $ro&lai"in' !or law o! the #niverse that a b#yers !#n&tion is to&hea$en, and a sellers to &heat, 2 the $#bli&, nevertheless, invol#ntarily

    &onde"n the "an o! &o""er&e !or his &o"$lian&e with their own

    state"ent, and sta"$ hi" !or ever as belon'in' to an in!erior 'rade o!

    h#"an $ersonality.

    This they "#st 'ive #$ doin'. They will have to dis&over a

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    5nd the d#ty o! all these "en is on d#e o&&asion to die !or it. or tr#ly the

    "an who does not

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    whether he is dealin' with s#&h s#bordinate as he wo#ld with his own son, i!

    &o"$elled by &ir"stan&es to ta

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    7ardon "e. Men o! b#siness do indeed "a

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    in his nei'hbo#rhood "#st be $oor and in want o! his 'old or his &orn.

    5ss#"e that no one is in want o! either, and that no servants are to be had.

    3e "#st there!ore ba

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    #nited $ro$erty o! the two "en will be less than it wo#ld have been i! both

    had re"ained in health and a&tivity.

    ;#t the relations in whi&h they stand to ea&h other are also widely altered.

    The si&< "an has not only $led'ed his labo#r !or so"e years, b#t will have

    e%ha#sted his share o! the stores, and will be in &onse*#en&e !or so"e ti"e

    de$endent on the other !or !ood, !or whi&h he &an only $ay hi" by yet"ore dee$ly $led'in' his own labo#r.

    (#$$osin' the written $ro"ises to be held entirely valid, the $erson who

    had hitherto wor

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    &o"es a $eriod o! e%tre"e ne&essity !or the", on one side or other, and

    then e%a&ts in e%&han'e !or the" all that the distressed !ar"er &an share

    other

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    :These are M 4ewels.:

    )ssay --- + )ven23anded 4#sti&e

    (o"e &ent#ries be!ore the hristian era, a 4ew "er&hant, re$orted to have

    "ade one o! the lar'est !ort#nes o! his ti"e 6held also in re$#te !or "#&h

    $ra&ti&al sa'a&ity, le!t a"on' his led'ers so"e 'eneral "a%i"s whi&h havebeen $reserved even to o#r own days. They were held in res$e&t by the

    Venetians who $la&ed a stat#e o! the old 4ew on the an'le o! one o! their

    $rin&i$al b#ildin's. B! late years these writin's have !allen into disre$#te,

    bein' o$$osed to the s$irit o! "odern &o""er&e.

    3e says !or instan&e in one $la&e + The 'ettin' o! treas#res by a lyin'

    ton'#e is a vanity tossed to and !ro o! the" that see< deathE addin' in

    another, with the sa"e "eanin' + Treas#res o! wi&

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    o! devo#rin' Cood or by la$se o! servi&eable wave. 5nd whi&h o! these it

    shall be, de$ends on both ri&h and $oor

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    Money $ay"ent, as stated in "y last $a$er, &onsists redi&ally in a $ro"ise

    to so"e $erson wor

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    will not have to #nderbid one another, b#t to a&*#ire new s

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    Th#s "en leave villa'e !ar"s with their s$rin' winds and &o"in' to &ities,

    live di"inished lives in the "idst o! noise, o! dar

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    This is not a ti"e !or sel!2ind#l'en&e b#t !or ea&h o! #s to labo#r a&&ordin'

    to o#r &a$a&ity. -! one "an lives in idleness, another has to $#t in a do#ble

    a"o#nt o! wor

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    -t is not ri'ht that one $eo$le sho#ld r#le another. ;ritish r#le in -ndia is an

    evil, b#t let #s not r#n away with the idea that all will be well when the

    ;ritish *#it -ndia.

    The e%isten&e o! ;ritish r#le in the &o#ntry is d#e to o#r dis#nity, i""oralityand i'noran&e. -! these national de!e&ts were over&o"e, not only wo#ld the

    ;ritish leave -ndia witho#t a shot bein' Ared b#t we wo#ld be enjoyin' real

    (waraj.

    (o"e !oolish -ndians rejoi&e in bo"b2throwin', b#t i! all the ;ritishers in the

    &o#ntry were th#s

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    61 -nstit#tions, says 3erbert ($en&er, are de$endent on &hara&ter E and

    however &han'ed in their s#$erA&ial as$e&ts, &annot be &han'ed in their

    essential nat#res !aster than &hara&ter &han'es.

    7#bli& do"ain This wor< is now in the $#bli& do"ain be&a#se it

    ori'inates !ro" -ndia and its ter" o! &o$yri'ht has e%$ired. 5&&ordin' to The

    -ndian o$yri'ht 5&t, [email protected], all literary, dra"ati&, "#si&al and artisti& wor