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UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA AHMAD BAHARUDDIN BIN ABDULLAH FK 2013 11 GEOMETRICAL AND DIMENSIONAL DEFECT EVALUATION OF COLD FORGED AA6061 PROPELLER BLADE

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  • UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA

    AHMAD BAHARUDDIN BIN ABDULLAH

    FK 2013 11

    GEOMETRICAL AND DIMENSIONAL DEFECT EVALUATION OF COLD FORGED AA6061 PROPELLER BLADE

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    GEOMETRICAL AND DIMENSIONAL DEFECT EVALUATION OF COLD FORGED

    AA6061 PROPELLER BLADE

    By

    AHMAD BAHARUDDIN BIN ABDULLAH

    Thesis Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia,

    in Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

    March 2013

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    Abstract of thesis presented to the Senate of Universiti Putra Malaysia in fulfillment of the

    requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

    GEOMETRICAL AND DIMENSIONAL DEFECT EVALUATION OF COLD FORGED

    AA6061 PROPELLER BLA DE

    By

    AHMAD BAHARUDDIN ABDULLAH

    March 2013

    Chair: Mohd Sapuan Salit, PhD, PEng

    Faculty: Engineering

    Accuracy is a key issue in cold forging process. Component defect is one of the major problems

    in cold forging because the process depends on many factors including complexity of the

    component. Defect not only affects the performance of the component but may also harm the

    assembly. The problem of defect becomes more critical as the complexity of the component

    increases, but the size and complexity of the part limit the effective assessment of the defect.

    This project aims to investigate the geometrical and dimensional defects that occur in

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicle propeller blades produced using the cold forging process.

    Typically the manufacturing of the blade can be divided into five stages namely, blanking,

    forming, trimming, heading and twisting. The defect was evaluated based on the three main

    criteria of the blade. First, the overall geometrical and dimensional accuracy of the blade was

    measured. In this study, the profile of the forged blade was considered as the final part, whereas

    the profile obtained from the punch was considered as the targeted profile. The profile was

    captured using a commercial focus variation based 3D surface measurement system, the Infinite

    Alicona System. The constructed 3D profile was then compared to a nominal model. Next, the

    filling ability of the pin head during the cold embossing or heading process was investigated,

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    because an imperfect or defective pin head may affect the final assembly of the blade. In this

    work, the effects of design and process parameters, including punch diameter and distance to

    edge on the formation of defect, were studied using the commercial 2D finite element analysis

    software DEFORM-2D. The defect can be estimated based on the incomplete filling of the

    region and the amount of bulging based on the captured images of the simulation result. In

    addition, the defect was predicted by investigating the design parameters and its effect on the

    material flow pattern. Comparison between the simulation result and the fabricated pin head

    show a geometrically similar pattern. Finally, the twist springback was measured. In this study,

    defect was considered based on profile deviation, which was obtained from the 3D surface

    measurement technique. An algorithm was developed to measure the deviation. The result

    showed that the thickness error depended on the deformation ratio whereas the twist angle

    accuracy relied on the amount of twist and thickness of the blade. In the other case, the

    simulation results indicated that the most significant parameter for the filling ability and amount

    of bulging was the distance to edge, whereas the punch taper was not relevant for cases of edge

    embossing. In the case of twist springback, the results implied that the twist springback increased

    as the twist angle increased. The highest springback was found to be at 16.11% for section E,

    while the lowest is 2.58% for section A. Similarly, the twist springback increased with the

    increase in deformation ratio. The coordinate measurement machine was used to validate the

    result. This study will contribute to the development of effective evaluation method in the non-

    contact measurement of geometrical and dimensional defect of component with complex profile

    such as the propeller blade.

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    Abstrak tesis yang dikemukakan kepada Senat Universiti Putra Malaysia sebagai memenuhi

    keperluan untuk ijazah Doktor Falsafah

    PENILAIAN KECACATAN GEOMETRIKAL DAN DIMENSI BILAH PENUJAH

    AA6061 YANG DIHASILKAN SECARA TEMPAAN SEJUK

    Oleh

    AHMAD BAHARUDDIN ABDULLAH

    Mac 2013

    Pengerusi: Mohd Sapuan Salit PhD, PEng

    Fakulti: Kejuruteraan

    Kejituan merupakan kunci utama dalam proses tempaan sejuk. Kecacatan komponen adalah

    merupakan salah satu masalah utama dalam tempaan sejuk disebabkana proses ini bergantung

    kepada banyak faktor termasuklah kerumitan komponen. Kecacatan bukan sahaja memberi kesan

    kepada prestasi komponen, tetapi ianya juga akan merosakkan pemasangan. Masalah kecacatan

    akan menjadi lebih kritikal selaras dengan peningkatan kerumitan komponen tersebut, ini kerana,

    saiz dan kerumitan komponen telah menghadkan keberkesanan penilaian kecacatan tersebut.

    Projek ini bertujuan untuk menyiasat kecacatan geometrikal dan dimensi yang wujud dalam

    bilah-bilah penujah Kenderaan Bawah-Air Autonomous yang telah dihasilkan menggunakan

    proses tempaan sejuk. Secara dasarnya, pembuatan bilah boleh dibahagikan kepada lima

    peringkat, yang dinamakan sebagai pengosongan, pembentukan, perapian, penghasilan kepala

    dan piuhan. Kecacatan dinilai berdasarkan tiga kriteria dan sifat. Yang pertama ialah pengukuran

    kejituan keseluruhan kecacatan geometrikal dan dimensi bilah. Dalam kajian ini, profil bilah

    yang dihasilkan melalui tempaan mewakili komponen akhir yang terhasil, manakala profil yang

    terhasil daripada penghentam dikira sebagai profil yang diharapkan pada bilah. Profil-profil ini

    akan terhasil dengan menggunakan sistem pengukuran permukaan 3D komersial yang

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    dibangunkan berdasarkan variasi fokus yang dinamakan, Infinite Alicona System. Profil 3D yang

    dihasilkan kemudiannya akan dibandingkan dengan model nominal bilah. Seterusnya kriteria

    yang kedua dan paling utama ialah kajian keboleh-isian kepala pin yang dihasilkan semasa

    proses penimbulan sejuk. Ini kerana ketidak sempurnaan atau kepala pin yang cacat akan

    memberi kesan kepada pemasangan akhir bilah. Dalam kajian ini, kesan parameter-parameter

    rekabentuk dan proses termasuklah diameter penghentam dan jarak ke bucu kepada

    pembentukan kecacatan telah dikaji dengan menggunakan perisian komersial analisis unsur

    terhingga DEFORM-2D. Kecacatan telah dianggarkan berdasarkan ketidak-sempurnaan

    pengisian kawasan dan bonjolan daripada imej yang diambil daripada keputusan simulasi. Selain

    itu, kecacatan juga diramal dengan menyiasat parameter rekabentuk dan kesannya kepada bentuk

    aliran bahan yang menjurus kepada kemunculan cacat. Akhir sekali, bidas-balik piuhan telah

    diukur. Dalam kajian ini, kecacatan dipertimbangkan berdasarkan sisihan profil yang terhasil

    daripada teknik pengukuran permukaan 3D. Algoritma dibina untuk mengukur sisihan.

    Keputusan daripada kajian yang telah dijalankan menunjukkan ralat ketebalan bergantung

    kepada nisbah perubahan-bentuk, manakala kejituan sudut piuhan bergantung kepada amaun

    piuhan dan ketebalan bilah. Dalam kes lain, keputusan simulasi menunjukkan yang parameter

    yang paling signifikan kepada keboleh-pengisian dan amaun bonjol adalah jarak ke bucu,

    malahan penghentam dengan serongan pun tidak relevan kepada kes proses penimbulan bucu.

    Perbandingan antara keputusan simulasi dan hasil tempaan sejuk menujukkan bentuk yang

    secara geometrinya sama. Manakala dalam kajian bidasan-balik piuhan menunjukkan

    peningkatan bidas-balik selaras dengan peningkatan sudut piuhan. Piuhan paling tinggi adalah

    16.11% bagi seksyen E, manakala yang paling rendah adalah 2.58% untuk seksyen A. Begitu

    juga, bidasan-balik piuhan bertambah dengan pengingkatan nisbah perubahan-bentuk. Dalam

    kajian ini, mesin pengukuran koordinat digunakan untuk mengesahkan keputusan yang

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    diperolehi. Kajian ini menyumbang kepada kaedah penilaian yang lebih efektif dalam mengukur

    tanpa-sentuh kecacatan geometrikal dan dimensi komponen berprofil rumit seperti bilah penujah.

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    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    In the name of Allah, Most gracious, Most merciful. Alhamdulillah, with His blessing, I have

    completed this research and the preparation of this thesis.

    I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisory committee chairman, Professor Ir. Dr.

    Mohd. Sapuan Salit, who constantly motivated me with his knowledge and insight, throughout

    the course of my study. I am also grateful to the members of the supervisory committee,

    Associate Professor Dr. Zahurin Samad and Dr. Nuraini Abdul Aziz for sharing their expertise

    and experience.

    I am forever grateful to my parents, who have taught me a lot of things about lives. Sadly they

    are not here to share the happiness. May Allah bless them and put them in Jannah. To my wife

    and children for their patient and prayers. Appreciation also goes to my friends and colleagues,

    all members and technicians at the School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains

    Malaysia. I cannot imagine doing this job without supports from all of you.

    Finally, my appreciation to Universiti Sains Malaysia and Ministry of Higher Education for the

    scholarship during my study leave from 2007 to 2011 and financial support through Research

    University Grant (RU) and Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) to sponsor this project.

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    APPROVAL

    I certify that an Examination Committee met on 12 March 2013 to conduct the final examination

    of Ahmad Baharuddin Abdullah on his Doctor of Philosophy thesis entitled Geometrical and

    Dimensional Defect Evaluation of Cold Forged AA6061 Propeller Blade in accordance with

    Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (Higher Degree) Act 1980 and Universiti Pertanian Malaysia

    (Higher Degree) Regulations 1981. The Committee recommends that the candidate be awarded

    the Doctor of Philosophy.

    Members of the Examination Committee are as follows:

    Chairman, PhD

    Professor Dr. Shamsudin Bin Sulaiman

    Universiti Putra Malaysia

    (Chairman)

    Examiner 1, PhD

    Professor Ir. Dr. Barkawi Bin Sahari

    Universiti Putra Malaysia

    (Internal Examiner)

    Examiner 2, PhD

    Associate Professor Dr. Mohd Rizal Zahari

    Universiti Putra Malaysia

    (Internal Examiner)

    Examiner 3, PhD

    Professor Dr. Mohammad Hameedullah

    Aligarh Muslim University, 202002 Aligarh, India

    (External Examiner)

    SEOW HENG FONG, Ph.D Professor and Deputy Dean

    School of Graduate Studies

    Universiti Putra Malaysia

    Date:

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    This thesis was submitted to the Senate of Universiti Putra Malaysia and has been accepted as

    fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. The members of the

    Supervisory Committee were as follows:

    Mohd. Sapuan Salit, PhD, PEng

    Professor

    Faculty of Engineering

    Universiti Putra Malaysia

    (Chairman)

    Zahurin Samad, PhD

    Associate Professor

    School of Mechanical Engineering

    Universiti Sains Malaysia Engineering Campus

    (Member)

    Nuraini Abdul Aziz, PhD

    Senior Lecturer

    Faculty of Engineering

    Universiti Putra Malaysia

    (Member)

    _____________________________

    BUJANG BIN KIM HUAT, PhD Professor and Dean

    School of Graduate Studies

    Universiti Putra Malaysia

    Date:

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    DECLARATION

    I declare that the thesis is my original work except for quotations and citations which have been

    duly acknowledged. I also declare that it has not been previously and is not concurrently,

    submitted for any other degree at Universiti Putra Malaysia or other institution.

    __________________________________

    AHMAD BAHARUDDIN ABDULLAH

    Date: 12 March 2013

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    xi

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Page

    ABSTRACT ii

    ABSTRAK iv

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT vii

    APPROVAL viii

    DECLARATION x

    TABLE OF CONTENTS xi

    LIST OF TABLES xiv

    LIST OF FIGURES xix

    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xx

    CHAPTER

    1 INTRODUCTION 1

    1.1 Overview 1

    1.2 Previous Work 4

    1.3 Significance of the Study 5

    1.4 Problem Statement 6

    1.5 Objectives of the Study 7

    1.6 Scope of the Study 7

    1.7 Organization of the Thesis 8

    2 LITERATURE REVIEW 9

    2.1 Background 9

    2.2 Definition 10

    2.3 Types of Geometrical Defects 15

    2.4 Investigation Tools 17

    2.5 Measurement Methods 20

    2.5.1 Contact 20

    2.5.2 Non-contact 21

    2.6 Representations of Profile Deviation 22

    2.6.1 Average Radius 22

    2.6.2 Absolute Area 24

    2.6.3 Surface Deviation 25

    2.6.4 Deformation Path 26

    2.6.5 Flange Contour 27

    2.6.6 Orthogonal Positions 28

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    xii

    2.6.7 Contact Point 29

    2.7 Defect Remediation Methods 31

    2.8 Support System 32

    2.9 Summary 34

    3 METHODOLOGY 36

    3.1 Finite Element Simulation using DEFORM 37

    3.1.1 Cold embossing of the Pin Head Overview 37

    3.1.2 Cold embossing of the Pin Head Modeling 40

    3.2 3D Surface Measurements 46

    3.2.1 Geometrical and Dimensional Defect 46

    3.2.2 Twist Springback Measurement 50

    3.3 Experimental Apparatus 56

    3.3.1 Mechanical Press Machine 56

    3.3.2 Infinite Alicona System 58

    3.3.3 Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) 59

    3.3.4 Universal Tensile Machine (UTM) 61

    3.3.5 Physical Modeling 62

    3.3.6 Tooling 63

    3.4 Materials 66

    3.5 Summary 66

    4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 68

    4.1 Geometrical and Dimensional Deviation 68

    4.2 Pin Head Embossing 75

    4.3 Material Flow Pattern 96

    4.4 Physical Modeling 101

    4.5 Twist Springback 105

    4.6 Summary 111

    5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION FOR FUTURE

    RESEARCH

    112

    5.1 General 112

    5.2 Overall Geometrical and Dimensional Error 112

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    xiii

    5.3 Pin Head Embossing 113

    5.4 Effect of Punch Geometries 114

    5.5 Twist Springback 114

    5.6 Recommendations for Future Work 115

    REFERENCES 116

    BIODATA OF STUDENT 128

    LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 129

    GEOMETRICAL AND DIMENSIONAL DEFECT EVALUATION OF COLD FORGED AA6061 PROPELLER BLADEABSTRACTTABLE OF CONTENTSCHAPTERSREFERENCES