Universal (Tier 1) Reading Instruction Nicole Fenty, Ph.D University of Louisville

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p> Slide 2 Universal (Tier 1) Reading Instruction Nicole Fenty, Ph.D University of Louisville Slide 3 Today Response to Intervention (Three Tier Model): Tier 1 Academic Instruction Core Programs Curricula Characteristics Grouping Five Key Components of Reading Sample strategies Slide 4 Multi-tier Model Slide 5 Tier 1 School wide efforts where ALL students are involved Universal screening of academic skills Instruction supported by scientifically based research Effective Instruction Differentiated Instruction Effective Classroom Management Copyright 2008 Mississippi Department of Education Slide 6 Tier 1: Effective Instruction Research-based effective teaching principles include: active engagement of students, direct instruction scaffolded instruction, instruction in the organizing, storing, &amp; retrieving of info, strategic instruction, explicit instruction, and instruction that teaches across subjects. Copyright 2008 Mississippi Department of Education Slide 7 Example of Tier Level Interventions Time Curricular Focus Curricular Breadth Frequency of Progress Monitoring Tier I 90 5 areas Core Every 6-8 weeks Reading Slide 8 Sample Common Core Reading Curricula Harcourt Trophies Rigby Literacy Scott Foresman Voyager Universal Literacy Slide 9 Characteristics of Effective Core Reading Programs Research-based instructional strategies that explicitly teach strategies and skills; Systematic and sequential instruction that moves children from simple to more complex skills and strategies; Ample practice opportunities that allow children to practice skills and strategies in reading and writing text; Assessment tools for diagnosing children's needs and monitoring progress; and Provide professional development that will ensure teachers have the skills necessary to implement the program effectively and meet the needs of their children. ednews.org Slide 10 9 Characteristics of the Core Reading Block Minimum of 90 minutes daily Uninterrupted and protected Teaching is dispersed across 5 days Writing and spelling are considered part of the core reading block if the objectives and lessons relate to one of the critical components Varied grouping patterns used Initial instruction and intervention for some students when needed Slide 11 10 General Overview Whole group instruction (Introduction of lesson, initial skill instruction, review for all) Small group instruction (centers) Homogeneous (Teacher led for targeted instruction, students have similar abilities) Heterogeneous (Student led, center activities planned to practice skills previously taught, students have varied abilities) Independent work (practice skills, assess skills) Whole group instruction (Teacher reviews, makes connections, read alouds) Slide 12 Whole Group Engages teachers and students in shared learning experiences Allows inclusion of every student Read aloudsShared writing Authors chair Speaking/performances Class discussionsModeling Introduction of new concepts Texas Education Agency: Second Grade Teacher Reading Academies Slide 13 Read Alouds Childrens literature Varied genres Increases vocabulary Adult fluent model Promotes oral language development Demonstrates reading for a purpose/enjoyment Fountas &amp; Pinnell, 1996 Slide 14 Shared Reading Enlarged texts Big books Poems Word by word correspondence Improves student participation Opportunities to participate Fountas &amp; Pinnell, 1996 Slide 15 Small Group Meets individual students needs Maximizes opportunities for students to express what they know and to receive feedback Center/station activities Practice concepts with immediate feedback Focus on targeted skills Slide 16 Review data sources Standardized measures Curriculum-based measures Progress monitoring Informal information (classroom data, observations) Identify at-risk students using data Determine targeted areas for instruction Students may have multiple areas of need 15 Forming Groups Based on Assessment Data Sample Screeners DIBELS AIMSWEB MAPS Scantron Assessment T-Pro Slide 17 Teacher Led Small Groups Focus is placed on skill development Same book or content is usually used with all students in group Teacher introduces text, previews, predicts, discusses vocabulary, guides students during read, asks students questions following reading, engages in word work Slide 18 Reading Centers Implemented during the time that the teacher is teaching in targeted small groups Activities planned should provide practice opportunities, not initial instruction Activities should match the reading objectives Slide 19 Considerations when planning centers Objectives (be sure that you have goals for what you want students to learn) Accountability (how will you know the kids did what they were suppose to do?) Management (how will you be sure that they remain engaged and on task?) Transitions (how will you ensure that students know where to go and how to get there?) Amount of time and movement between centers (be sure to plan ahead and take transitions into account) Slide 20 Keeping Groups Flexible Regroup Often Use class work, informal assessments during instruction, and progress monitoring of at-risk students to regroup students and change instruction Texas Education Agency: Second Grade Teacher Reading Academies Slide 21 How to manage more than one group at a time When introducing centers/stations, take sufficient time to explain, demonstrate, practice procedures, and clarify expectations one step at a time. Establish rotation procedures that allow you to work with a small group without interruption. Reading First Initiative: Secretarys Leadership Academy Slide 22 21 Remember--Make students accountable for their work! Word Study with a Buddy -- review knowledge of word parts to read words and determine meaning Reading Corner -- where a wide variety of books are organized by topic and reading level, and students can read and reread with a partner, or in a small group Writing Plus -- extends all the components of reading through a variety of writing activities, including computers Texas Education Agency: Second Grade Teacher Reading Academies What Will Other Students Do While I Teach a Small Group? Mixed ability would be okay here Slide 23 Word Work Manipulate letters and words Develops letter/sound correspondence Provides opportunities practice words from connected text Fountas &amp; Pinnell, 1996 Slide 24 Independent Work Only allow with material that have been mastered Consider providing ways for students to self-assess Increases opportunities for immediate feedback Practice skills Assess skills Promotes individual responsibility Slide 25 How Do I Teach Students to Work Independently? Teach each independent activity as a separate set of lessons (with modeling and feedback) Practice, practice, practice Texas Education Agency: Second Grade Teacher Reading Academies Slide 26 Independent Reading Read text at independent reading level Practice reading strategies independently Practice re-reading text Fountas &amp; Pinnell, 1996 Slide 27 Independent Writing Produce text Practice writing words independently Practice writing for different purposes Fountas &amp; Pinnell, 1996 Slide 28 Five Key Components of the Core Reading Program Phonological/Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Slide 29 Phonological/Phonemic Awareness Phonological Awareness The conscious understanding about how speech can be broken down into different size parts The ability to manipulate those parts Phonemic Awareness The conscious understanding that spoken words are made up of individual sounds Note: Phonological Awareness is not the same as phonics - no letter-sound correspondence is involved. It may be an essential skill for phonics instruction to make sense, however. Slide 30 Word Level Syllable Level Onset-Rime Level Phoneme Level PhonologicalAwareness Slide 31 Phonemic Awareness Skills Discriminating: recognizing which pictures in a set of pictures begin with the same sound ("Bell, bike, and boy all have /b/ at the beginning.") Blending: combining, or blending the separate sounds to say the word ("/m/, /a/, /p/ map.") Segmenting: breaking, or segmenting a word into its separate sounds ("up /u/, /p/."). Deleting: Children recognize the word part that remains when a phoneme is removed from another word. (smile without the /s/ is mile) Substituting: Children substitute one phoneme for another to make a new word. (The word is bug. Change /g/ to /n/. The new word is bun). Slide 32 Activities for Rhyming Play the willoughby wallaby woo name game. Song: Willoughby wallaby woo, An elephant sat on you! Willoughby wallaby wee, An elephant sat on me! Willoughby wallaby W_______, An elephant sat on __________! Slide 33 Activities for Onset and Rime Practice Critter Sitter Some animals have escaped from the zoo Draw a picture of large cage on the board We need to catch a /l/ion. What animal are we trying to catch? (lion) Put the picture of the lion over the picture of cage Continue with other animals Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn, 2000 http://www.clker.com/clipart-23399.html Slide 34 Activities for Discriminating Slide 35 Activities for Blending Guessing Game Im thinking of something in our classroom. You can sit on it. It is a /ch/ /ai/ /r/ What am I thinking of? (chair) Display three pictures or items Display the pictures Say the individual sounds in one of the pictures Ask students to guess the word you are thinking of Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn, 2000 http://www.balddog.com.au/images/illustration/cartoon_bag.gif Slide 36 Activities for Deleting Tell a story, leaving off the initial sound in the last word of each sentence. After school I go _ome. I then walk my _og. I then take a _ap. Ask students what is missing Re-tell the story and have students fill in the missing sounds Draw a picture with an elkonin box underneath Ask students to name the picture Have students name the sounds Put a sticky note in the first box Say: If I cover up the first sound, what is left? What sound is missing? Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn, 2000 http://www.balddog.com.au/images/illustration/cartoon_bag.gif Slide 37 Phonics Phonics is the knowledge that letters represent sounds and when these sounds are blended or pronounced, the result is reading words. Skills Letter-sound correspondence, blending, onset- rimes/word families, multi-syllable words Activities used for phonological awareness can also be used for phonics instruction just include letters Slide 38 Sample Phonics Activity: Phonograms -at Brainstorm words that rhyme with cat. Consider creating sentences to contextualize Print at on the board Blend and segment at Practice adding onsets to the rime at Contextualize with sentences and decodable text Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn, 2000 Slide 39 Components Fluency accuracy speed/rate prosody A readers fluency rate depends on the complexity of the text Slide 40 Components of Fluency Instruction Model reading text Allow opportunities for practice Frequent progress monitoring Fluency Activity Super Signals Choose a piece of text that signals you want students to recognize and understand (e.g., exclamation marks, question marks, etc). Use a big book or overhead projector Read with no expression Re-read with expression Discuss the differences between the two readings with students Allow for practice with text using the signals Johns &amp; Berglund, 2002 Slide 41 Components of Effective Vocabulary Instruction Florida Center for Reading Research, 2004 Slide 42 Activities for Vocabulary tele telegram televisiontelephone telepathy Word Roots Prefixes -re, -un, -dis, etc Un- not or opposite of undo, unwind, untie Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn, 2000 Slide 43 Comprehension The process of constructing meaning from text Slide 44 Comprehension Activate or build background knowledge Monitor comprehension throughout After reading Summarize Identify main idea/supporting details Compare/contrast similar text Identify and use text structures (e.g., sequencing, cause/effect etc) Slide 45 Identifying the Main Idea Explain to students that learning to identify the most important idea of a passage will make it easier to remember what they read. Start with short excerpts/paragraphs. Focus on the main person and on what the main person did. Think aloud and make use of graphic organizers Continue practice with several paragraphs Honig, Diamond, Gutlohn, 2000 Slide 46 Resources www.fcrr.org Fountas &amp; Pinnell (1996). Guided reading: Good first teaching for all children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Johns, J., &amp; Berglund, R.L (2002). Fluency: Strategies and assessments. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt. Honig, B., Diamond, L., &amp; Gutlohn, L. (2000) Teaching reading sourcebook for kindergarten through eighth grade. Novato, CA: Arena Press. </p>