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    UNIVERSITATEA DANUBIUS DIN GALAI

    DEPARTAMENTUL DE NVMNT LADISTAN I FRECVEN REDUS

    FACULTATEA DE DREPT

    ALINA CHEC

    Anul I, Semestrul I

    LIMBA ENGLEZ

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    CONTENTS1. The Nou !"# $%e&'"(')e# *e+*$,

    Countable Nouns. e!ular Nouns

    Irre!ular Nouns. Nouns o" Lat#n an$ Gree% Or#!#n S#n!ular#a Tantum Nouns

    &lural#a Tantum Nouns

    S'e(#"#( Ob)e(t#*es

    Summar+

    Sel"e*aluat#on Tests

    B#bl#o!ra'-+

    -. The A#e&*'/e !"# $%e&'"(')e# *e+*$,

    T-e e!rees o" Com'ar#son. e!ular A$)e(t#*es

    Irre!ular A$)e(t#*es

    &-rases /#t- A$)e(t#*es

    S'e(#"#( ob)e(t#*es

    Summar+

    Sel"e*aluat#on tests

    B#bl#o!ra'-+

    0. The Ve2 3Te$e$ "# Moo#$ !$%e&'"(')e# *e+*$,

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    e"#n#t#ons 1 Tense an$ As'e(t

    &resent Tense S#m'le

    &resent Tense Cont#nuous

    &ast Tense S#m'le

    &ast Tense Cont#nuous

    &resent &er"e(t S#m'le&resent &er"e(t Cont#nuous

    &ast &er"e(t S#m'le

    &ast &er"e(t Cont#nuous

    Summar+

    Sel"e*aluat#on tests

    B#bl#o!ra'-+

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    4. Ph"$"( Ve2$ !"# $%e&'"(')e# *e+*$,

    e"#n#t#on an$ eam'les

    3ar#ous (omb#nat#ons

    S'e(#"#( ob)e(t#*es

    Summar+

    Sel"e*aluat#on tests

    B#bl#o!ra'-+

    B'2('o5"%h6

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    INTO5CTIONT-#s En!l#s- (ourse $es#!ne$ "or t-e 6st +ear stu$ents #stan(e learn#n!$e'artment 7 a#ms at (reat#n! t-e (om'eten(es o" (ommun#(at#on #n En!l#s- #nse*eral "#el$s 8su(- as La/, Commun#(at#on an$ &ubl#( elat#ons,

    Internat#onal elat#ons an$ Euro'ean Stu$#es9. E*er+ (-a'ter (onta#ns anumber o" lessons /-#(- ensure a 'ro!ress#*e an$ stru(ture$ learn#n!. T-elearn#n! a(t#*#t#es are meant to ba(% u' t-e ne/ %no/le$!e an$ (reate t-e(om'eten(es to be a(:u#re$ b+ t-e stu$ents. T-e assessment tests use$ at t-een$ o" ea(- lesson, t-e summar+ an$ t-e (on(lus#ons also (ontr#bute to ba(%#n!u' t-e %no/le$!e an$ (om'eten(es ta%en #nto (ons#$erat#on. A"ter +ou -a*estu$#e$ all t-e #n"ormat#on an$ sol*e$ t-e eer(#ses, +ou /#ll a(:u#re t-e"ollo/#n! (om'eten(es1

    un$erstan$#n! bot- t-e s'o%en an$ /r#tten En!l#s- re(o!n#;#n! stru(ture s#!nals 8*erb tenses, 'ersonal 'ronouns,

    s#n!ular

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    !#*#n! eam'les. Certa#nl+, +ou /#ll be e'la#ne$ t-e $#ss#m#lar#t#es bet/eent-e oman#an an$ En!l#s- $e!rees o" (om'ar#son. Moreo*er, +ou /#ll "#n$*ar#ous '-rases an$ I$#oms (onta#n#n! a$)e(t#*es. @ust l#%e #n t-e "#rst (-a'ter,+ou /#ll also rea$ an$ translate tets on $#""erent #ssues, t-us learn#n! ne//or$s use$ #n *ar#ous "#el$s an$ us#n! t-em #n senten(es an$ tets o" +ouro/n.

    T-e t-#r$ (-a'ter, The Verb (Tenses and Moods9, a''roa(-es t-e *erb an$ #tstenses u' to &ast &er"e(t Cont#nuous 7 as t-e ot-er tenses an$ moo$s are to beanal+;e$ #n t-e 2n$semester. In t-#s (-a'ter +ou /#ll "#n$ t-e $e"#n#t#ons o"tense an$ as'e(t, +ou /#ll anal+;e ea(- tense ta%#n! #nto a((ount t-e as'e(t an$t-e t+'e o" a(t#on #t e'resses an$ also t-e $#""eren(es bet/een t-e oman#anan$ En!l#s- tenses. Moreo*er, +ou /#ll ma%e u' senten(es an$ tets o" +ouro/n b+ obser*#n! t-e rules 're*#ousl+ e'la#ne$. >ou /#ll also rea$ an$translate tets on *ar#ous #ssues, t-us learn#n! more ne/ /or$s "rom $#""erent"#el$s an$ us#n! t-em #n senten(es an$ tets o" +our o/n= +ou /#ll also -a*e$ebates on su(- #ssues.

    T-e "ourt- (-a'ter, The Phrasal Verbs, a''roa(-es t-e Verb+AdverbialParticle ombination. >ou /#ll be !#*en eam'les o" *erbs (omb#ne$ /#t-a$*erb#al 'art#(les an$ anal+se -o/ t-e mean#n! o" t-ese *erbs (-an!e /#t-e*er+ (omb#nat#on. Moreo*er, +ou /#ll ma%e senten(es o" +our o/n us#n!*ar#ous '-rasal *erbs.

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    1. The Nou

    Countable Nouns. e!ular NounsIrre!ular Nouns. Nouns o" Lat#n an$ Gree% Or#!#n

    S#n!ular#a Tantum Nouns

    &lural#a Tantum Nouns

    S'e(#"#( Ob)e(t#*es

    Summar+

    Sel"e*aluat#on Tests

    B#bl#o!ra'-+

    Specific objectives:

    At t-e en$ o" t-e (-a'ter +ou /#ll be able to1

    anal+;e t-e (ountable 8bot- re!ular an$ #rre!ular9 an$ un(ountable nouns $e"#ne t-e S#n!ular#a an$ &lural#a Tantum Nouns e'la#n t-e $#""eren(es bet/een t-e Sub)e(t&re$#(ate a!reement #n

    oman#an an$ En!l#s- 8re!ar$#n! t-e 're*#ousl+ ment#one$ t+'es o" nouns9 (orre(tl+ translate (ontets us#n! S#n!ular#a an$ &lural#a Tantum Nouns translate (erta#n I$#oms

    Estimated time for individual study: 3 hours

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    Al#na C-e(D !a"s o# e$%ressing #uturit"

    1.1. Cou*"2(e Nou$. Re5u(" Nou$

    T-e (ountable nouns -a*e t/o "orms1 a s#n!ular one an$ a 'lural one. T-es#n!ular "orm #s not mar%e$1 boo%, bo, (-#l$.

    T-ere are t/o "orms o" 'lural 1

    A. Re5u(", /-en t-e 'lural #s "orme$ b+ a$$#n! t-e sF en$#n!1 boo& ' boo&s

    B. Ie5u("7 /-en t-e 'lural #s "orme$ #n ot-er /a+s

    69 es#nenta 's se s(r#e 's $u'a ma)or#tatea substant#*elor, #n(lu;an$ substant#*eleterm#nate #n'emut1 boo& ' boo&s, table ' tables

    29 E(e't##1 e#sta unele s#tuat## (are "a( e(e't#e $e la a(easta re!ula !enerala1

    a9 Substant#*ele term#nate #n 7s= ;= = (-= s- a$au!a e$ 1 bus 7 buses= !lass 7!lasses= bu;; 7 bu;;es= bo 7 boes= /at(- 7 /at(-es= brus- brus-es=

    b9 La (ate*a $#ntre substant#*ele $#n a(est !ru' se $ublea;a (onsoana "#nala1 #ez '#ezzes, )uiz ' )uizzes

    (9 Substant#*ele term#nate #n8o1 a$au!a $es#nenta8$1

    - (an$ 8o e 're(e$at $e o *o(ala1 cuc&oos* &angaroos* radios* scenarios*studios* zoos*

    - la substant#*ele 'ro'r##1ili%inos* s&imos* Neros* -omeos*

    - #n abre*#er#1 &ilos 8%#lo!rammes9,%hotos 8'-oto!ra'-s9,%ros8'ro"ess#onals9=

    - la unele substant#*e stra#ne1 concertos, dunam, %ianos, solos, so%ranos

    - au $oua "orme $e 'lural1 banjos ' banjoes* bu##alos ' bu##aloes* cargo 'cargoes* mementos ' mementoes* mottos . mottoes* volcanos . volcanoes*

    zeros ' zeroeset(.=

    $9 substant#*ele term#nate #n86're(e$at $e o (onsoana trans"orma 'e .. #n 's# a$au!a8e$1 cit" ' cities* #actor" . #actoriesTrans"ormarea nu are lo(1

    - $u'a *o(ale1 bo" ' bo"s* %la" ' %la"s*

    - #n substant#*e 'ro'r##1 the /enned"s*

    - #n substant#*e (om'use1stand.b"s*

    e9 l#terele, numeralele s# abre*#erele "ormea;a 'lural 'r#n a$au!area unu# "%o$*o9s#

    8$1 A0s* 12340s* MP0s5 There are t6o A0s and three 30s in the number o# thatnglish car There are t6o MP0s in the lobb"

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    Al#na C-e(D !a"s o# e$%ressing #uturit"In en!le;a (ontem'orana e#sta ten$#nta (a numeralele s# abre*#erele sa "orme;e

    'luralul s# 'r#n a$au!area $oar a unu# 's la s#n!ular1 in the 1274 MP (Member o#Parliament8 ' MPs* Mt (Moutain8 ' Mts* vol (volume8 ' vols* lb (%ound8 ' lbs* P9

    (Post 9##ice, Postal 9rder8 ' Pos

    orma $e 'lural "ara a'ostro" este ma# "re(*ent "olos#ta $e(at (ea (u a'ostro".

    09 &luralul substant#*elor (om'use

    a9 Ma)or#tatea substant#*elor (om'use a$au!a 's la ult#mul element1 classroom .classrooms* #orget.me.not (#loare de nu.ma.uita8 ' #orget me nots* gro6n.u% '

    gro6.u%s* horse race (cursa de cai8 ' horse races* race horse (cal de curse8 '

    race horses* merr".go.round ' merr".go.rounds (calusei8*

    b9 5nele substant#*e (om'use, $e ob#(e# (ele al(atu#te $#ntrun substant#* s# o(onstru(t#*e 're'o;#t#onala, a$au!a's la 'r#mul element1 loo&er.on ' loo&ers.on*mother.in.la6.mothers.in.la6* %asser.b" ' %assers b"*

    (9 Substant#*ele (om'use #n (are 'r#mul element este mansau 6omantrans"orma la'lural ambele elemente1 man singer ' men singers* 6oman doctor ' 6omendoctors

    1. -. Ie5u(" Nou$. Nou$ o9 L"*' "# Gee: ;'5'

    &luralul nere!ulat al substant#*elor se "ormea;a #n ma# multe "elur#1

    a9 Consoana sur$a "J sau sJ #n (are se term#na substant#*ul se tran"orma #n 'ere(-eae# Sonora1 J, *J sau ;J 8*o#(#n!9 la unele substant#*e1

    .thJ K thsJ1 bath ' baths* mouth ' mouths* %ath ' %aths* "outh ' "ouths*

    . #(e8 :#; .< ves *;J1 (al" 7 (al*es= el" 7 el*es= -al" 7 -al*es= %n#"e 7 %n#*es=lea" 7 lea*es= loa" 7 loa*es= l#"e 7 l#*es= /#"e 7 /#*es=

    Atent#e A(est "enomen $e sonor#;are a (onsoane# "#nale nu se 'ro$u(e la toate

    substant#*ele term#nate #n J, "J sau sJ. E#sta s# "orme $e 'lural re!ulat s# os(#lat#e #ntre (ele$oua "orme1

    &lural re!ulat 8691

    (onsoana .th5 *o(ala .th1

    berth ' berths cloth ' cloths

    earth ' earths death ' deaths

    length ' lengths #aith ' #aiths

    orme $uble 8691

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    Al#na C-e(D !a"s o# e$%ressing #uturit"9ath ' oaths

    Truth ' truths

    &lural re!ulat 8291

    =elie# . belie#s

    hie# ' chie#s

    li## ' cli##s

    Proo# ' %roo#s

    -oo# ' roo#s

    >a#e ' sa#es

    orme $uble 8291

    ?6ar# ' d6ar#s ' d6arves

    @and&erchie# ' hand&erchie#s ' hand&erchieves

    @oo# . hoo#s ' hooves

    >car# ' scar#s ' scarves

    !har# ' 6har#s ' 6harves

    b9 3o(ala sau $#"ton!ul "#nal se s(-#mba #n alta *o(ala sau $#"ton! 8mutat#on91 man 'men* 6oman . 6omen* #oot ' #eet* goose ' geese* tooth ' teeth* mouse ' mice*

    louse ' lice

    Com'us## (u substant#*ul man au a(eeas# 'ronunt#e la s#n!ular s# 'lural, $es#orto!ra"#a $#"era1 a %ostman :; ' t6o %ostmen :;, an nglishman :; ' t6o

    nglishman :;

    (9 Tre# substant#*e a$au!a $es#nenta 'en 8(u sau "ara mutat#e *o(al#(91 o$ 'o$en*child ' children* brother ' brethren

    =rother8"rate9 are 'lural re!ulat1 brothers8"rat#9. &luralul nere!ulat brethreneste"olos#t $oar (u sensul $e membru al une# so(#etat# rel#!#oaseF.

    $9 5nele substant#*e numarab#le au a(eeas# "orma la s#n!ular s# 'lural 8'r#mes($es#nenta ;ero 7 'lural ;ero9.

    Substant#*ele (u $es#nenta ;ero la 'lural se $eosebes( $e substant#*ele #n*ar#ab#le(are au numa# s#n!ular 8music9 sau numa# 'lural 8cattle9 'r#n "a'tul (a se a(or$a

    atat (u un *erb la s#n!ular (at s# (u un *erb la 'lural1 There is a stra"s-ee'on theroadE o oa#e rata(#ta 'e $rum. There aresome stra" s-ee'on the road Sunt(ate*a o# rata(#te 'e $rum.

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    Al#na C-e(D !a"s o# e$%ressing #uturit"&luralul ;ero este "olos#t1

    - Cu unele substant#*e 's1 barrac&s ' ban(a= head)uarters ' se$#u= means 'm#)lo(=series7 ser#e=s%ecies7 s'e(#e= 6or&s ' u;#na1

    This is an arm"barra(%s. These are arm"barra(%s. The bus, trolle"bus and theunderground are modern means o# trans%ort Autobu;ul, trole#bu;ul s# metroulsunt m#)loa(e mo$ern $e trans'ort.

    Nou$ o9 L"*' "# Gee: o'5'

    E#sta ma# multe $es#nente $e 'lural $e or#!#ne stra#na (are sunt "olos#te #n l#mba en!le;a,ma# ales #n l#mba) st##nt#"#(1

    u$ 3'1stimulus ' stimuli* bacillus ' bacilli* nucleus . nuclei

    . u< 8"=addendum ' addenda* datum ' data*

    Agendum 'agenda* erratum ' errata

    =acterium ' bacteria* stratum ' strata

    3 '$ 8e$=anal"sis ' anal"ses* elli%sis ' elli%ses*

    a$is ' a$es* h"%othesis ' h"%otheses*

    basis ' bases* crisis ' crises*

    %aral"sis ' %aral"ses

    Alte substant#*e $e or#!#ne stra#na au $oua "orme $e 'lural1 'luralul re!ulat (u 's s#'luralul $e or#!#ne stra#na1

    actus . cactuses . cacti

    enius . geniuses . genii ( s'#r#te, $u-ur#9

    8oamen# $e !en#u9

    >"llabus . s"llabuses . s"llabi

    Terminus . terminuses . termini

    Antenna . antennas . antennae

    ormula . #ormulas . #ormulae

    Vertebra . vertebras . vertebrae

    A)uarium . a)uariums . a)uaria

    urriculum . curriculums . curricula

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    Al#na C-e(D !a"s o# e$%ressing #uturit"Medium . mediums . media

    >anatorium . sanatoriums . sanatoria

    >"m%osium . s"m%osiums . s"m%osia

    A%%endi$ . a%%endi$es . a%%endices

    (#n anatom#e9 8#n (art#9

    Bnde$ . inde$es . indices

    ((u'r#nsur#9 8#n$#(# 7 #n matemat#(a9

    Automaton . automatons . automata

    =ureau . bureaus . bureau

    Plateau . %lateaus . %lateau

    1.0. S'5u("'" T"*u< Nou$

    In l#mba en!le;a "a( 'arte $#n (lasa substant#*elor #n*ar#ab#le la s#n!ular unelesubstant#*e, (are sunt numarab#le sau #n*ar#ab#le la 'lural #n l#mba romana1 advice, business,

    #urniture, home6or&, income, in#ormation, &no6ledge, luggage, merchandise, mone",

    nonsense, %roduce ('ro$use natural, a!r#(ole9, %rogress, strength, 6or&

    @e al6a"s gives me good advice Tot$eauna #m# $a s"atur# bune.

    Cou must do "our home6or& care#ull" Trebu#e sa #t# "a(# (u atent#e temele

    B need #urther in#ormation Am ne*o#e $e #n"ormat## su'l#mentare.

    @is &no6ledge o# nglish is %oor Cunost#ntele lu# $e en!le;a sunt slabe.

    !here0s "our luggageD 5n$et# sunt ba!a)eleP

    The mone" is in "our 6allet Ban## sunt #n 'orto"elul tau.

    Cou are tal&ing nonsense 3orbest# 'rost##.

    This %u%il is ma&ing #ast %rogress in learn. A(est ele* "a(e 'ro!rese mar# #n

    ing nglish #n*atarea l#mb## en!le;e.

    @e #elt his strength 6as #alling S#mtea (al lasa 'uter#le.

    Cuant#"#(area substant#*elor #n*ar#ab#le la s#n!ular se 'oate real#;e (u a)utorul unor(u*#nte num#te (uant#"#(ator#, 're(um1 a %iece o#, an item o#, a bar o#, a bag o#, et(.

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    Al#na C-e(D !a"s o# e$%ressing #uturit"Substant#*e (on(rete1

    A %iece o# bacon

    A slice o# ca&e

    A %iece o# bread

    loa#

    A %iece o# sugar

    lum% o# coal

    A %iece o# meat

    roast

    A %iece o# chocolate

    bar o# soa%

    A %iece o# chal&

    stic&

    A %iece o# land

    stri%

    A %iece o# #urniture

    An article

    A bito# grass

    A blade

    A %iece o# %a%er

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    Al#na C-e(D !a"s o# e$%ressing #uturit" sheet

    Substant#*e abstra(te1

    A %iece o# advice

    6ord

    A %iece o# in#ormation

    An item o# ne6s

    An item o# business

    A bit

    A %iece o# 6or&

    A bit

    A bit o# interest

    An amount

    A %iece o# luc&E evidenceE research

    A 6ord o# abuse

    A #it o# %assion

    An attac& o# #ever

    1. 4. P(u"('" T"*u< Nou$

    Substant#*ele #n*ar#ab#le la 'lural au numa# "orma $e 'lural s# se a(or$a (u un *erb la'lural1 The 2'o&u("$are on the des&Q=inoclul este %e birou.

    Ele $enumes(1

    69 ob#e(te "ormate $#n $ouD 'DrR#1 binoculars, com%asses, glasses, %incers, %liers,scales, scissors, s%ectacles, tongs

    !here are the $&'$$o$> ? 5n$e este "oar"e(eleP

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    Al#na C-e(D !a"s o# e$%ressing #uturit"The scalesare on the table F =alanta este %e masa

    The tongsthat "ou bought "esterda" are in the to% dra6er. Q lestele %e care l.aicum%arat ieri este in sertarul de sus

    29 art#(ole $e #mbra(am#nte1 braces, clothes #lannels, jeans, overalls, %ants, %"jamas,shorts, trousers5

    The overalls are too big #or "ou F A(easta salo'eta este 'rea mare 'entru t#ne.

    Su2$*"*'/e u

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    Al#na C-e(D !a"s o# e$%ressing #uturit"?amages (%l tantum8 F des%agubiri

    ##ect F e##ect* %l e##ects

    ##ects (%l tantum8 F e#ecte, haine

    lass F %ahar* %l glasses

    lasses (%l tantum8 F ochelari

    round F motiv, cauza* %l grounds

    rounds (%l tantum8 F zat, teren, %arc in jurul unei cladiri

    Letter F scrisoare* %l letters

    Letters (%l tantum8 F literature, litere

    Manner F mod* %l manners

    Manners (%l tantum8 F maniere, %urtare

    Minute F minut* %l minutes

    Minutes (%l tantum8 F %rocess.verbal

    Pain F durere* %l %ains

    Pains (%l tantum8 F osteneala

    Premise F %remise* %l %remises

    Premises (%l tantum8 F local, imobil

    Guarter F s#ert, cartier* %l )uarters

    Guarters (%l tantum8 F locuinta, cantonament

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    Al#na C-e(D !a"s o# e$%ressing #uturit"-ecei%t F chitanta* %l recei%ts

    -ecei%ts (%l tantum8 F incasari

    >cale F gama muzicala, solz* %l scales

    >cales (%l tantum8 F balanta

    >cra% F bucatica, #ragment* %l scra%s

    >cra%s (%l tantum8 F resturi de mancare, deseuri de metal

    >%ectacle F s%ectacol* %l s%ectacles

    >%ectacles (%l tantum8 F ochelari

    Term F %erioada, termen, trimestru* %l terms

    Terms (%l tantum8 F termini, relatii, ra%orturi, conditii

    >%irit F s%irit* %l s%irits

    >%irits (%l tantum8 F bauturi alcoolice, #antome

    Su2$*"*'/e e

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    Al#na C-e(D !a"s o# e$%ressing #uturit"A$)e(t#*ele sau 'art#(#'##le 'ersonale substant#*#;ate1 the handica%%ed, the injured,the %oor, the rich, the sic&, the 6ounded5

    The 'ue#6ere ta&en to hos%ital an#t## au "ost $us# la s'#tal.

    1.. Fo " 2e**e u#e$*"#'5 o9 5"

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    Al#na C-e(D !a"s o# e$%ressing #uturit"The JTV %ressJ %robabl" justi#ies a se%arate mention5 concen.trating on TV

    %rogrammes, it has an enormous circulation (several million co%ies in some cases8 and is an

    ideal channel #or general advertising.

    !. Television. The ideal medium #or convenience goods nli&e the %ress, 6hich is

    highl" selective, television s%eads its message 6ide, 6ithout #ear o# s%lashing or even

    #looding, since it reaches simultaneousl" several million %eo%le This is 6h" this medium hass6allo6ed the bul& o# advertising accounts #rom big advertisers 6ho aim at the general

    %ublic, men, 6omen and &ids all included, to the disma" o# the other media ' and more

    %articularl" the %rinted %ress

    3.Poster"advertisingdoes not meet the needs o# industrial and %ro#essional goods an"

    more than TV does Bt is essentiall" geared to general %ublic items, goods or services,

    durable or not, 6hether it be instant mashed %otatoes, insurance or air.travel

    #. $adio"advertising.Although 6ide in coverage, it is more selective than TV There

    are indeed man" stations, 6ith varied audiences, 6hich besides, can change 6ith the time o#broadcasting

    %. The cinema, a %oor relation, the more so as movei.theatre attendance gets lo6er

    and lo6er 6hile more and more #ilms ma" be seen on TV 6ithout e$tra.charge

    Advertisers and their agencies need the relevant in#ormation concerning those media

    to devise their communication %olic" and to generate media %lanning accordingl" >uch data

    are su%%lied b" a number o# organizations

    MdiamtrieO, a =ig =rother o# sorts, calls the tune in audiovisual media than&s tot6o monitoring s"stems5

    the radio %anel, through 34 dail" %hone intervie6s, studies the audience %er units o# 1

    minutes, the duration o# listening %eriods, the %ro#ile o# each station*

    the TV %anel, based on 3,744 households, studies the e$%osure to advertising s%ots

    through the Mediamat s"stem, 6hich has su%erseded the Audimat5 each member o# the

    household %resses a button on the recording machine %laced on the TV set ever" time he

    or she is %resent in #ront o# the screen

    &ey:

    'ele cinci mari mijloace de comunicare n mas)

    Pentru a in#luenHa cum%rtorii %otenHiali, %ublicitatea trebuie s ajung la ei

    Aceasta se %oate realiza %rin mass media Bat %rinci%alele caracteristici ale celor cinci mari

    mijloace de comunicare Qn mas5

    1. Presa (sau Presa scris) este mijlocul de comunicare universal care ne %ermite s

    ne adresm atIt %ersoanelor #izice, cIt Ri %ro#esioniRtilor Ri industriaRilor, Ri s atingem Hintemari, dar Ri mici, datorit caracterului su #oarte selectiv

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    Al#na C-e(D !a"s o# e$%ressing #uturit"Presa cotidian naHional, com%us Qn %rinci%al din titlurile bucureRtene din -omInia

    Ri din omoloagele lor strine (The !ashington Post, The Times, ?ie !elt, orriere della

    >erra, Asahi >himbun8, %oate %ublica orice mesaj %ublicitar

    Presa cotidian regional nu are decIt audienH local, chiar dac #olosim termenul

    SlocalJ Qntr.o acce%Hiune #oarte larg

    -evistele servesc Qn %rinci%al %ublicitHii destinate marelui %ublic Presa tehnic Ri

    %ro#esional este un mijloc %rivilegiat de a ajunge la industriaRi Ri la %ro#esioniRti din toate

    domeniile de activitate

    ARa.numita %res tehnic SgeneralO este un canal de distribuHie %entru %rodusele

    standard #urnizate #oarte multor #irme din toate sectoarele

    Presa tehnic Ss%ecializatO vizeaz Hinte mult mai mici, %e de.o %arte %rin

    s%ecializare %e sectoare sau ramuri de activitate (trans%orturi, construcHii8, %e de alt %arte,

    %rin s%ecializare #uncHional sau tehnic s%eci#ic (sudare, criogenie8 Presa gratuit,

    com%us din ziare locale de anunHuri %entru mica Ri marea %ublicitate, cunoaRte o #oarte

    mare dezvoltare de la a%ariHia ei Qn anii K4

    SPresa TVO justi#ic %robabil o rubric se%arat5 consacrat %rogramelor de

    televiziune, ea are tiraje cu adevrat e$traordinare (Qn unele cazuri, mai multe milioane de

    e$em%lare8 Ri serveRte ca vehicul ideal %entru %ublicitatea destinat marelui %ublic

    !. Televi*iunea' regina mass media %entru %rodusele de larg consum >%re deosebire

    de %res, care este #oarte selectiv, televiziunea QRi transmite mesajele #r a #ace o selecHie,

    #r a se teme s abordeze sau chiar s debordeze %ublicul, de vreme ce ajunge Qn casele a

    cItorva milioane de %ersoane simultan ?e aceea, acest mijloc de comunicare a aca%arat

    ansamblul bugetelor tuturor marilor clienHi care se adreseaz marelui %ublic5 brbaHi, #emei,

    inclusiv co%ii ' s%re dis%erarea restului mass.media Ri Qn s%ecial a %resei scrise

    3.+fi,ajul, ca Ri televiziunea, nu este nici el mai indicat %entru %rodusele industriale

    Ri %ro#esionale ste destinat Qn %rinci%al %roduselor de larg consum, bunuri sau servicii, #ie

    ele de #olosinH Qndelungat sau nu, #ie c e vorba de %iure instant, asigurri sau trans%orturi

    aeriene

    #.$adioul.?eRi are o arie mare de aco%erire, este mai selectiv decIt televiziunea

    $ist, Qntr.adevr, multe %osturi care nu au aceeaRi audienH Ri, de alt#el, aceasta se %oate

    modi#ica %e %arcursul emisiei

    %.'inematograful, ruda lor mai srac, Ri asta cu atIt mai mult cu cIt #recventarea

    slilor de cinema scade din ce Qn ce mai mult, Qn tim% ce tot mai multe #ilme %ot #i vzute la

    televizor #r cheltuieli su%limentare

    ei care.Ri #ac %ublicitate Ri agenHiile lor au nevoie de in#ormaHii re#eritoare la aceste

    mijloace de comunicare Ri su%orturi %ublicitare %entru a.Ri %une la %unct atIt %olitica de

    comunicare, cIt Ri %lani#icarea mijloacelor de reclam cores%unztoare Aceste in#ormaHii

    sunt #urnizate de un anumit numr de organizaHii

    SMdiamtrieO, un #el de =ig =rother mediatic, d tonul Qn audiovizual %rin dou

    sisteme de monitorizare5

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    Al#na C-e(D !a"s o# e$%ressing #uturit"

    %anelul radio studiaz, cu ajutorul a 34 de interviuri tele#onice cotidiene, audienHa din

    s#ert Qn s#ert de or, durata ascultrii Ri %ro#ilul #iecrui %ost*

    %anelul de televiziune, bazat %e relaHia cu 3744 de cmine, studiaz contractual cu

    s%oturile %ublicitare cu ajutorul sistemului Mediamat, care a Qnlocuit Audimatul5 #iecare

    membru al #amiliei a%as %e un buton al a%aratului de Qnregistrare %lasat %e televizor, ori

    de cIte ori se a#l Qn #aHa ecranului

    A&*'/'*6 1

    Translate the follo-ing sentences into English:

    6. t#r#le 'e (are leam 'r#m#t 'nD a(um nu sunt $emne $e #n(re$ere.

    2. #e(are t#re $es're a(t#*#tatea sa*anR#lor este aste'tatD (u emoR#e.

    0. Ba!a)ele au "ost "D(ute # $es"D(ute t#m' $e tre# ore "DrD Untreru'ere.

    4. Trebu#e sD 'ubl#(Dm toate #n"ormat##le (are sunt ne(esare(an$#$aR#lor.

    ?. M#am s'Dlat salo'eta 'e (are am "olos#to #n ult#mele tre# ;#le, $e#nu era 'rea mur$arD.

    . DtD(#sem $rumul, asa (a a*eam ne*o#e $e un b#no(lu s# o busola,$ar nu am 'utut !Ds#.

    . Cunot#nRele lu# $e "onet#(D # l#n!*#st#(D !eneralD sunt remar(ab#le.

    . Este #n$#s(utab#l un om $e l#tere "oarte a're(#at #n Or#entul M#)lo(#u.

    . ostul 'ree$#nte nu a ma# $at n#(# un #nter*#u #n ult#ma *reme.

    6. N#(# mD(ar #n !an$ nu su'orta ee(ul, s#n!urDtatea, *D$u*#a, mun(ane#nteresantD, 'erse(uR#a.

    66. Cum 'ro"esorul #ntrase $e)a #n (lasD, el 'ur s# s#m'lu rse $re't

    s(u;D # se ase;D Un ban(D.

    62. Ar trebu# sa# a'DrDm 'e (e# slab# s# 'e (e# bolna*#.

    60. O )umDtate are tre# 'atr#m#.

    64. Trebu#e sD $e(lar# totul la *amD, alt"el a# 'utea a*ea 'roblemeser#oase.

    6?. t## "oarte b#ne (a e ne*o#e $e mot#*e sol#$e 'entru un $#*orR.

    6. #re(torul $orete (a 'ro(esul *erbal sa "#e !ata #n )umatate $e orD.

    6. BalanRa 'e (are m#a# (um'Drato a(um (ate*a ;#le este 'e b#roul $#n

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    Al#na C-e(D !a"s o# e$%ressing #uturit"

    A&*'/'*6 -

    Put the right endings5

    as bla(% as (... as "#t as a "...as 'oor as a (-ur(- m... as $ea" as a '...

    as /-#te ass... as "res- as a$...

    as sober as a )... as br#!-t as $... as ol$ as t-e -... to eat l#%e a-... as l#!-t as a "... to "#t l#%e a !... as -ea*+ as I... to turn u' l#%e a ba$ '

    as !oo$ as !... to slee' l#%e a I...

    A&*'/'*6 0

    S-e /as s#tt#n! on t-e "en(e. a9 )o%#n!S-e /as 'la+#n! #t b+ ear. b9 s'ea%#n! an$ a(t#n! "#rml+S-e /as (au!-t re$-an$e$. (9 $#s(o*ere$ #n t-e a(t o" t-#e*#n!S-e /ent ba(% on -er /or$. $9 l#*#n! on l#ttleS-e /as 'ull#n! -#s le!. e9 not ta%#n! s#$esS-e too% someone "or a r#$e. "9 not ma%#n! 'lans a-ea$S-e l#*e$ on a s-oestr#n!. !9 $e(e#*#n! 'eo'leS-e 'la+e$ truant. -9 not !o#n! to s(-oolS-e 'a#nte$ t-e to/n re$. #9 not %ee'#n! -er 'rom#seS-e 'ut -er "oot $o/n. )9 $r#n%#n! an$ ma%#n! a lot o" no#se

    Su

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    Al#na C-e(D !a"s o# e$%ressing #uturit"

    Se(93e/"(u"*'o *e$*$

    1. F'(( ' *he 9o((o'5 2(":$=

    BLACX BL5E GEEN E SCALET YHITE >ELLOY

    6. Y-en Sara- sa/ Sues ne/ bo+"r#en$ s-e /as [[[[. /#t- en*+.

    2. [. meat #s (ons#$ere$ to be -ealt-#er t-an bee", lamb or ot-er t+'es o" [[ meat.

    0. T-e ... &a!es -as all t-e ne(essar+ #n"ormat#on "or +ou.

    4. I s'ent t-ree /ee%s #n -os'#tal /-en I -a$ ... "e*er.

    5.

    T-#s sort o" t-#n! -a''ens onl+ on(e #n a ... moon.6. Sara- an$ Gra-am -a$ a tra$#t#onal... /e$$#n! #n Yales.

    7. A"ter "all#n! #n t-e street -e -a$ a ... e+e "or /ee%s.

    8. Youl$ +ou l#%e +our (o""ee ... or /#t- some m#l% an$ su!arP

    9. I remember t-at m+ mot-er -a$ ... "#n!ers to -er last $a+.

    10.Ye are ser#ousl+ #n t-e ... t-#s mont-.

    -. F'(( ' *he 9o((o'5 2(":$=

    BACX E>E ACE INGE HAN MO5TH NE3E

    TONG5E TOOTH STOMACH

    1....................................Must +ou -a*e a

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    Al#na C-e(D !a"s o# e$%ressing #uturit"

    BI B5TTEL> CAMEL CAT OG ISH LION &IG AT

    1................................................Be"ore m+ $r#*#n! test I -a$ #n m+ stoma(-.2.............................. Its been ra#n#n! an$ "or $a+s.3.........................&eter !ot t-e s-are o" t-e mone+ t-e+ #n-er#te$.4. Y-en I tra*elle$ to t-e (ountr+ last Mon$a+ I /as %#ll#n! t/o [[[[.. /#t- one

    stone, $o#n! bus#ness an$ *#s#t#n! an ol$ "r#en$.?. Xee' m+ se(ret, 'lease. I $ont /ant to let t-e..............out o" t-e ba! +et.

    . E*en #" t-e "oo$ #s !oo$, $ont ma%e a < n .............. o" +oursel" at t-e /e$$#n!.

    7...................................................................... A lot o" 'eo'le are alrea$+ "e$ u'/#t- t-e [[[[.. ra(e o" mo$ern l#"e.

    8...................................................... Its t-e last stra/ t-a) bro%e t-e ba(%.. T-e r#ot bro%e out be(ause 'r#soners /ere treate$ l#%e...........

    6. Are +ou..."or (om'l#mentsP

    4. F'(( ' *he 9o((o'5 2(":$=

    A&&LE BEA B5TTE CEAM EGG @5ICE MILX SALT S5GA S&ICE

    1.....................Y-o #s t-e /#nner #n +our "am#l+P2. T-ese +oun! '-+s#(#sts are t-e smartest 'eo'le #n oman#a, t-e [[[[ o" t-e#r

    !enerat#on.0. I (ant tell +ou /-at (ause$ /-at. It #s a t+'#(al (-#(%en an$................... s#tuat#on.

    4. Y-en I met -er "or t-e "#rst t#me, s-e !a*e me a s/eet.......... sm#le t-at I "oun$ mostunnatural.

    ?. ont bel#e*e e*er+t-#n! +ou -a*e rea$. T-e re'orts -a*e to be ta%en /#t- a '#n(- o"[[.

    . ont "eel sorr+ "or -#m. He al/a+s %no/s /-#(- s#$e -#s ................ #s [[[ on.

    . 3ar#et+ #s t-e [[[[[ o" l#"e.

    . I /#s- /e (oul$ [[[[. t-e '#ll "or +ou, but t-#s #s t-e trut-.

    . S-e -a$ -er last bab+ at 4?. No /on$er, -e /as t-e [[[[[. o" -er e+e.

    6. I -a*e )ust -ear$ a < n [[[[ stor+ about t-e ne#!-bours.

    B'2('o5"%h6=

    Broo%es, M#(-ael, Horner, E. 8229=usiness nglish ngleza %entru a#aceriBu(uret#1 E$. Teora.

    Broo%es, M#(-ael. 8209.ngleza %entru juriRti Bu(uret#1 E$. Teora.

    C-#"u, Iul#an 8249. I$ent#t+ Con"l#(ts. Bu(uret#1 &ol#te#aSNS&A.

    Limba englez 2?

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    Al#na C-e(D !a"s o# e$%ressing #uturit"C-#rDles(u, M., &a#$os C. 82?9.Pro#icienc" in nglish. Inst#tutul Euro'ean.

    Coo%, @., Get-#n, A. 86?9.A Ne6 !a" to Pro#icienc" in nglish.O"or$.

    a+an, A., L#n$sa+, Y.H. 829. ngleza %entru mar&eting si %ublicitate.Bu(uret#1 E$#tura Teora.

    el!#u$#(e, Lum#n#ta 869. i#t" se#ul Tests in nglish. Bu(uret#1 E$.

    Aram#s.ema;et, Bertran$ 869. ngleza comertului e$terior Bu(uret#1 E$#turaTeora.

    GDlDReanurnoa!D, G. 829.Limba englez Qn conversatieBu(uret#1 E$.t##nR#"#(D # En(#(lo'e$#(D.

    G-eor!-#to#u, An$reea. 869.?ictionar englez.roman de verbe cu %articulaadverbiala. Bu(uret#1 Teora.

    Han!a Cal(#u, o$#(a 869. Crestomat#e $e tete )ur#$#(e en!le;e. Bu(uret#1E$. Lum#na Le.

    Han!a, 3la$#m#r 829. ?ictionar juridic englez.roman. Bu(uret#1 Lum#naLe.

    Healt-, .B. 8229.Bm%act Assignments in nglishLon$on1 Lon!man.

    Hulban H. 869.nglish #or Cou. Ia#1 E$. D;eu.

    Le #*ena(-, Elo# 82?9.ngleza in %resa. Bu(uret#1 E$#tura Teora.

    Lu'uleasa, . 8249.-ead" #or $ams Bu(uret#1 E$#tura &ol#rom.

    Mar#eClau$e, olan$ 829. V in limba engleza n %as s%re angajare .Bu(uret#1 E$#tura Teora.

    Mart#n, M. Combe 829.Listening and om%rehending. Ma(m#llan.M#-aes(u, Alean$ra 829. ramatica limbii engleze. Bu(uret#1 E$#tura

    N#(ules(u.

    Molnar O'rea, N#(oleta 829. urs de limba engleza %entru studentii#acultatilor cu %ro#il juridic. Bu(uret#1 E$. All E$u(at#onal.

    O'res(u, S#mona 869.ngleza %entru juriRti. Bu(uret#1 E$. Os(ar &r#nt.

    &eters, @oAnn 8249. Let0s Learn nglish Metod Larousse de QnvHare alimbii engleze. Bu(uret#1 E$#tura Teora.

    usu, L#l#ana 8269. Limba engleza %entru studentii #acultatii de dre%t.Bu(uret#1 E$. S+l*#.