Download Unit1 essay-DEEP SEA CREATURES

Post on 19-Jul-2015




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Daniela Lin P-6Deep-Sea Creatures (Unit 1)Hot, cold, deep, and dark places are usually undesirable and impossible to live in. Although there are a few who have adapted to it and even thrive in it! These creatures are usually coined with the name deep-sea creatures. Creatures like the giant squid, zombie worms, jellyfish, and yeti crabs survive through thick and thin literally everyday with temperatures at 700 Fahrenheit near spewing hydrothermal vents. Most of these places have only been recently explored (and not in depth) because of the need for complex technology like a remote-controlled submarine. Many of these animals have specialized structures (such as the giant squid with its feeding tentacles) capable of withstanding overwhelming environments to an average human.Within continental shelves and island slopes, lies the giant squid (source 1: database 44) with its eyes that have great light-absorbing capacity (to be able to see in the deep-sea), funnel that lets it create jet propulsion and expel waste, feeding tentacles (10 meters long) containing powerful toothed suckers for sucking up prey within the dark deep depths of the ocean, arms that are just as powerful as the feeding tentacles(also contain toothed suckers) which help guide prey in the dark to its main tentacles. Its beak serves for slicing prey up and coloration changes depending on light source and angle to fit into the environment and thus be able to capture prey easily. Off the coast of California, (source 2: science article 45) lies the zombie worm who doesnt have a very complex structure; they have a relatively soft body (invertebrates) that even lack a mouth and gut. They are able to prosper by attaining root-like structures that attach itself to whale bones (possibly the only food source that floats down to the ocean floor) and secrete acids that dissolve it allowing the worms to extract the nutrients. Other ways to ensure its survival include striking a mutualistic relationship with internal bacteria that live off them in turn for digesting the fats and oils extracted from whale carcasses.Near Antarctica in the Southern Pacific, 7,200 feet below surface, lie a chain of hydrothermal vents (source 4: informational article 47) which are very hot and cold at the same time. The hydrothermal vents lie where two continental plates collide, as a result cold water from the sea spews onto earths molten crust (making it hot and cold at the same time). In this type of environment, the Yeti Crabs thrive in groups of 600 living on each square meter. Not much is known about them as the current redundancy of technology doesnt allow scientists to witness whats really deep down under. Its commonly thought that Yeti crabs, which have hairy legs and chests, allow mineral-eating bacteria (which are common beings in deep vents as many bacteria are strong enough to survive in arduous environments) to grow on their hairs in order to consume them. At a depth of about 820 meters (source 3:field notes 46) (pitch dark), flashes of blue, red, yellow, and orange light indicate that bioluminescent fish are nearby thus the jellyfish will flash its bright blue lights to scare them away or to attract bigger predators to consume it (the bioluminescent fish).These extreme environments with molten lava, water temperatures of 700 Fahrenheit (water boils at 100 Fahrenheit), and freezing seawater do not deter animals. The yeti crab, who have hair all over their legs and chest to attract easy food sources (bacteria which commonly are able to survive in harsh areas). Others shine lights of differing colors from their bodies to shock predators and attract others to chase them off. Whether its by the complex structures its provided with or forming relationships with others they all thrive. The different creatures have differing ways of surviving in the harsh environments.