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Unit Plan: Using Spices in the Kitchen Course: Culinary Arts I Teacher: Etoye Johnson Duration of Unit: 3 days Unit Title: Using Spices in the Kitchen RIBTS 1.1, 1.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 3.3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.4, 5.1, 5.5, 6.4, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4 Purpose of the Unit This unit will allow the students to: 1) Become familiar with common spices used in the kitchen, 2) Determine how spices enhance the flavors of food products, 3) Identify the variety of ways spices are used in cooking, 4) Identify the main food products spices pair well with, 5) And, Create spice blends to use with food products in the kitchen. Rationale or Overview of the Unit Through the duration of this unit the students will: 1) Become familiar with the history and characteristics of 16 commonly used spices, 2) Learn how to use spice grinding tools and ways to enhance the flavors of spice prior to adding them to food products, 3) Learn how to analyze food products that they prepare using sensory perception, and 4) Learn how to create spice blends for food products.

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  • Unit Plan: Using Spices in the Kitchen Course: Culinary Arts I Teacher: Etoye Johnson Duration of

    Unit: 3 days

    Unit Title: Using Spices in the Kitchen RIBTS 1.1, 1.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 3.3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.4, 5.1, 5.5, 6.4, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3,

    8.4 Purpose of the Unit This unit will allow the students to:

    1) Become familiar with common spices used in the kitchen,

    2) Determine how spices enhance the flavors of food products,

    3) Identify the variety of ways spices are used in cooking, 4) Identify the main food products spices pair well with, 5) And, Create spice blends to use with food products in

    the kitchen.

    Rationale or Overview of the Unit

    Through the duration of this unit the students will: 1) Become familiar with the history and

    characteristics of 16 commonly used spices,

    2) Learn how to use spice grinding tools and ways to enhance the flavors of spice prior to adding them to food products,

    3) Learn how to analyze food products that they prepare using sensory perception, and

    4) Learn how to create spice blends for food products.

  • Standard(s): American Culinary Federation: American Culinary Federation: Food Preparation: Purpose: To develop skills in knife tool, and equipment handling and apply principles of food preparation to produce a variety of food products. To operate equipment safely and correctly. To apply knowledge of laws and regulations relating to safety and sanitation. Competencies: 2. Demonstrate how to read and follow a recipe. 3. Identify the proper use of utensils, pots and pans. 6. Identify and use herbs, spices, and vinegars. Applied Learning Standards: A1a. The student designs and creates a product, service, or system to meet an identified need; that is the student:

    o Plans and implements the steps needed to create the product, service, or system.

    A4a. The student learns from models, that is, the student: o Uses what he or she learns from models in planning

    and conducting project activities Academic Standard: Reading Standards: E1c. The student reads and comprehends information materials to develop understanding and expertise and produces written or oral work that:

    o Restates or summarizes information o Relates new information to prior knowledge and

    expertise

    Goals of the Unit

    Upon completion of this unit the students will know:

    1. How to identify spices using their senses. 2. How to identify the variety of forms that the spices are available in. 3. How to correctly use spices when cooking, so that they enhance the flavor of the

    food product. 4. How to use spice grinding tolls and ways to enhance the spices flavors before

    adding them to food products. 5. A variety of ways that spices can be used in cooking. 6. To use sensory perception to analyze food products that they prepare and recipes

    they create. Instructional Objectives of the Unit

    Upon completion of this unit:

    1 The student will be able to identify a variety spices by using their senses.

  • 2. The student will be able to correctly use different forms of spices when cooking. 3. The student will be knowledgeable about spice shelf life. 4. The student will identify and correctly use 3 tools used to grind spices. 5. The student will know how to use sensory perception to analyze food products. 6. The student will explain how spices can enhance flavors of food products. 7. The student will create spice blends to enhance the flavor of a variety of food

    products. Instructional Procedures

    Instruction procedures that are used during this unit include:

    1. Presenting new information through PowerPoint presentations. 2. Allowing the students to complete The Spice Rack matching activity to begin

    using their sensory analysis and identifying spices. 3. Hands-on activities to allow the students to learn to use a variety of tools used inside

    of the kitchen. 4. Comparison analysis to determine how spices can enhance food products. 5. Student creation of spice blends to begin developing student creativity. 6. Class discussions about sensory perception by analyzing a variety of food products,

    in order to begin to get them to evaluate their cooking. Pre-Assessment and Assessment of Student Achievement 1. Using queuing questions to determine the students past experiences using spices

    (Pre-assessment). 2. The students completing the matching activity to identify spices, and comparing their

    answers to the information provided on the PowerPoint (The Spice Rack Matching Activity) (Formative Assessment).

    3. The students researching spices and designing a spice chart (Formative Assessment). 4. Determining if the students have experience using spice-grinding tools, and if they

    know how spices enhance the flavor of food products (Pre- Assessment). 5. Students using the spice grinding tools, participating in preparing a dish, and in

    analysis to determine how spices enhance the flavor of the food product (Summative Assessment).

    6. The student creation of spice blends that will enhance the flavor of the food products and complete and analysis of determining how the flavors were enhanced (Summative Assessment).

    Materials and Tools of Instruction Computer for PowerPoint

  • Disk with PowerPoint presentations on it (Lessons #1, 2, & 3) Spice grinder, pepper grinder, and mortar and pestle (Lessons#2, & 3) Ingredients to prepare food products (Lessons #2 & 3), 14 spices in separate sandwich bags all placed in brown bags for each student

    (Lesson #1 & #3), Sample of Saffron and whole nutmeg (Lesson #1 & #3), Handouts of:

    o Spice pairing chart (Lesson #3), o PowerPoint presentations (Lessons #1, 2, & 3), o Matching activity (Lesson #1), o Recipe for Harrissa (Lesson #2), o Spice chart assignment description (Lesson #1), o Steps for sensory analysis (Lesson #2 & 3), o Spice visual aid (Lesson #3) o Rubrics for:

    a) Spice Chart assignment (Lesson #1), b) and Sensory Analysis (Lesson #2 & #3)

  • Lesson Plan # 1: Identifying Spices

    1. Descriptive Data Teacher: Etoye Johnson Class: Culinary

    Arts I Date: April 5, 2004 Grade Level: 11

    Room Number: 120 Period: 2 Unit: Using Spices in the Kitchen

    Lesson Number #1 Topic: Identifying Spices

    Anticipated noise level (high, moderate, low): low to moderate RIBTS

    1.2, 2.3, 2.4, 3.3, 4.1, 5.5, 6.3, 8.1, 8.2 Standard

    American Culinary Federation: Food Preparation: Purpose: To develop skills in knife tool, and equipment handling and apply principles of food preparation to produce a variety of food products. To operate equipment safely and correctly. To apply knowledge of laws and regulations relating to safety and sanitation. Competencies: 6. Identify and use herbs, spices, and vinegars. Applied Learning Standard: A4a. The student learns from models, that is, the student:

    o Uses what he or she learns from models in planning and conducting project activities

    Academic Standard: Reading Standards: E1c. The student reads and comprehends information materials to develop understanding and expertise and produces written or oral work that:

    o Restates or summarizes information o Relates new information to prior knowledge and expertise

    2. Goals and Objectives Instructional Goals: Upon completion of this lesson the students will be able to:

    o Identify spices by smelling, tasting and recognizing the appearance of them. o Describe the uses for different spices and forms of spices. o Become aware of the spice shelf life. o Identify how spices should be used with different food products.

  • Specific Objectives: Cognitive:

    o The students will recall previous experiences using the 15 presented spices (knowledge).

    o The students will describe food products that the 15 spices presented are better paired with (evaluation).

    o From a list of descriptions, the students will identify the spice that goes with each description, using 15 samples of spices to aid them (analysis).

    Affective:

    o The students will recognize when how to use the 15 spices during the cooking process (organizing).

    o The students will be able to explain the reason that chefs need to obtain knowledge about spices (valuing).

    Psychomotor: o The students will be able to describe the uses, aromas and appearance of the 15

    presented spices (communicating). o During this lesson the students will be building a basic knowledge base so that

    they will be able to create their own spice blends in future lessons (creating).

    3. Rationale: As aspiring chefs the students will need to be able to:

    o Identify spices using their sight, smell, and taste sensations. o Identify the forms that the spices are available in. o Have the knowledge of the correct way to use spices in a food product to

    enhance the flavor. The activities planned in this lesson will provide students with basic information about spices that will allow them to enhance the flavors of foods while working in the kitchen. 4. Procedure (procedure with modeling examples, transitions, coached practice, and so on) Content: The students will view a PowerPoint presentation that provides a description of 15 spices. While viewing the presentation the students will complete The Spice Rack matching activity, respond to questions and ask questions about spices.

  • 1-2 Activity 1: Set (introduction) Minutes Queuing Questions: to determine the past experiences that the

    students have using spices (Ask a few students these questions).

    o What spices have you used before? o Do you remember the smell and appearance of the spices? o What food product did you use the spice with?

    *Transition from opening questions to matching activity. Verbally provide directions and have typed copies of directions.

    5 Activity 2: The Spice Rack Matching Activity Minutes Each student will receive a chart with descriptions of the 15 spices

    presented listed. Each student will receive a bag with 14 spices inside (Saffron will not be included inside of the bags). Individually each student will match the spices according to the descriptions by using their sight, smell and taste sensations. The students will find out if they are correct during the PowerPoint presentation. *Transition from matching activity to PowerPoint. Have each student raise their hands when they have completed the activity.

    15 Activity 3: PowerPoint Presentation Minutes The Spice Rack The PowerPoint presentation will provide the students

    with information regarding 15 commonly used spices. (Formative Assessment) While the students are viewing the presentation they will discover the descriptions that they have matched with the correct spices, from The Spice Rack matching activity. * Transition from PowerPoint to summative assessment. Have the alternate questions (provided below) readily available just in case you need to use them.

    3 Final Activity (lesson conclusion or closure) Minutes (Summative Assessment) Questioning Review

    a. Questioning is conducted to determine how many spices each student matched correctly; the ones that they did not match correctly and have them provide the correct description

    (Or if everyone matched them ALL correctly) b. Use these review questions about the spices (the alternate questions):

    o Why do chefs need to know about spices? o How should spices be stored? o What is the major purpose of spices in cooking? o What one spice had you never seen before and what did you learn

    about it? o What are spices?

    If time remains: Question the students on the best parings for each of the 15 spices with food products (Paring examples provided in the spice slides in PowerPoint). 5. Assignments and Reminders of Assignments

    1. Read Chapter 16 (pg. 368 372) in Culinary Essentials Book 2. Find 10 spices that were not presented. Make a chart with descriptions of the

    spices, so that someone that is not familiar with the spices can identify them (Example of chart layout; matching activity).

  • Special notes and reminders to myself: Hand out copies of PowerPoint, and Spice Chart assignment description and rubric upon completion of the summative assessment. 6. Materials and Equipment Needed Audiovisual: Computer for PowerPoint Other: Disk with PowerPoint presentation on it, handouts of PowerPoint, matching

    activity handout, 14 spices in separate sandwich bags all placed in brown bags for each student, Sample of Saffron, Spice chart assignment description

    7. Assessment, Reflection, and Revision Assessment of student learning: Pre-assessment: determining the students past experiences with using spices Formative Assessment: The students completing the matching activity using actual spices, and comparing their answers to the information provided on the PowerPoint. Summative Assessment: The review questioning segment (see final activity) Homework Assignment: Spice Chart assignment and Chapter 16 reading assignment (Pg. 368-372) Reflective thoughts about the lesson: Suggestions for revision: Accommodations: Any accommodations will be made for students that are in need of them.

  • Lesson # 1: Identifying Spices R.I.B.I.T.S 1.2 Teachers use a broad knowledge base to create interdisciplinary learning experiences. 2.3 Teachers select instructional materials and resources based on their comprehensiveness, accuracy, and usefulness for representing particular ideas and concepts. 2.4 Teachers incorporate appropriate technological resources to support student exploration of the disciplines. 3.3 Teachers create lessons and activities that meet the variety of developmental levels of students within a class. 4.1 Teachers design instruction that accommodated individual differences (e.g. stage of development, learning style, English language acquisition, learning disability) in approaches to learning. 5.5 Teachers use tasks that engage students in exploration, discovery, and hands-on activities. 6.3 Teachers organize and allocate the resources of material and physical space to support active engagement of students. 8.1 Teachers use a variety of communication strategies (e.g. restating ideas, questioning, offering, counter examples) to engage students in learning. 8.2 Teachers use a variety if modes of communication (e.g. verbal, visual, kinesthetic) to promote learning.

  • Spice Chart

    Choose 5 spices that were not presented in class. Write

    descriptions for each of the spices. The descriptions should

    include what they look like, the scent that they have, how they

    taste, where the spice comes from, and any other information you

    may feel is important. The descriptions provided should be clear

    enough so that anyone can identify the spice. Take the

    descriptions and create an easy to read chart.

    *Be sure to include the rubric attached when handing in the

    assignment.

    * If you need an example to guide you, refer to The Spice Rack

    matching activity.

  • Spice Chart Grading Rubric

    Name: ________________________ Subject/Class: __________________ Grade/Level: _____________ Date: ______________ Category 4 3 2 1 Score

    Description of Spices

    Provides descriptions of 5 spices. Very descriptive; spices are identifiable by anyone.

    Provides descriptions of 5 spices. Descriptive; spices can be identified

    Provides description of less than 5 more than 3 spices. Not descriptive enough.

    Provides a description of less than 3 spices.

    Lay out

    of Chart

    Shows creativity in devising the chart. The chart is easy to read.

    The chart is easy to read, but follows example of The Spice Rack Matching activity.

    Shows creativity in devising the chart. The chart is hard to read.

    Shows no creativity in devising the chart and the chart is hard to read.

    Understanding

    Demonstrates a thorough understanding of importance of having knowledge of spices.

    Demonstrates a competent understanding of the importance of having knowledge of spices.

    Demonstrates a minor understanding of the importance of having knowledge of spices.

    Demonstrates no understanding of the importance of having knowledge of spices.

    Accuracy

    Completely accurate

    Accurate for the most part.

    Partially accurate; major errors of fact are present

    No accuracy

    Grammar and

    Spelling

    No grammar or spelling errors

    1-2 spelling or grammar errors

    3-4 spelling errors, can understand the main ideas

    Many spelling errors, impossible to understand main ideas

    Total Score: _________________ Grade Earned: _____

  • The Spice Rack- Matching Activity Directions: You will be given a bag that contains 14 different spices. Inside of the bag are 14 separate plastic bags. The plastic bags are numbered and contain spices. Match the spices in the bags with the given descriptions; place the number on the plastic bag in the column marked numbers, that you think the spice matches the given description. You may only use all of your senses for assistance. Raise your hand when you have completed this task. There will be one blank description left. Try and figure out what the spice is. * Warning: some of the spices may be spicy to the taste.

    Numbers on Spice Bags Spice Descriptions

    Has a combination taste of cinnamon, nutmeg, and cloves

    Can be purchased whole or ground Also know as Jamaica Pepper

    Dried greenish brown seeds of a plant in the parsley family

    Has a sweet licorice flavor and aroma Can be purchased whole or ground

    A hot pungent powder made from a variety of tropical chilies that are dried and ground

    Purchased ground Also know as red pepper

    A tiny seedlike fruit with a strong celery flavor

    Can be purchased whole, ground or mixed with salt

    A dried, unopened flower bud from the tropical evergreen clove tree

    Reddish brown color Shaped like a nail

    The inner bark of the evergreen tree Dark and reddish brown in color Has a bittersweet flavor Can be purchased whole or ground

    Dried fruit of a plant in the parsley family Has a nutty flavor Can be amber, black, or white in color Can be purchased whole or ground

  • A plant from the tropical and subtropical regions.

    The plant is grown for the root. Has a spicy aroma and a sweet and peppery

    flavor

    The lacy bright membrane of the nutmeg seed, that has been dried

    Has a similar flavor of nutmeg with a hint of cinnamon

    When it is dried it has a yellowish-orange color

    Can be purchased whole or ground Small, round, smooth seeds of the watercress

    family White, yellow, or brown in color Can be purchased whole, ground, or as a

    sauce

    The seed from a tropical evergreen tree Has a warm, spicy and sweet aroma Can be purchased whole or ground

    A powder made from grinding aromatic sweet red pepper pods

    Orange-red to deep-blood red in color Flavors can range from mild to pungent and

    hot, with a sweet flavor A berry that grows in grapelike clusters

    Can be purchased whole, cracked, coarsely ground, and fine ground

    Yellow-orange stigmas from a small purple crocus plant

    Has a sweet smell and bitter taste The most expensive spice Can be purchased in threads or powdered

    The root of the tropical plant related to ginger Yellow-orange in color Has a bitter and pungent flavor Purchased in the powder form

  • Lesson # 1: Identifying Spices:

    Reflective Essay

    Presented to

    Anthony J. Marsella M.Ed., CEC, CCE

    In Partial Fulfillment of

    The Requirements of TC6004

    Johnson & Wales University

    By

    Etoye Johnson

    April 19, 2004

  • On Monday April 5th I taught my first planned lesson. The lesson was planned to

    teach students about spices and how to use them when cooking. As with all lessons

    planned and taught there were areas where improvements can be made. Areas in this

    lesson where the improvements can be made include the matching activity, the

    questioning and responding sequence, and the assessment activity that was planned.

    MATCHING ACTIVITY

    There are a few areas that need to be improved in the matching activity before the

    lesson is taught again. During the matching activity the students were given a chart and a

    bag full of spices, and were told to use their senses to match the spices with the provided

    descriptions.

    One area that was not taken into consideration when planning this activity was, if a

    student were allergic to one of the spices that were presented. The ways that I can

    currently think of to alter this activity for a student with that problem would be to, not

    have them complete the analysis portion of the activity or pair them with a student who is

    not allergic and have them work together to match the descriptions.

    Another area during the activity that needed to be altered was, that there was no

    planned teacher coaching during this activity. When this lesson is taught again, a

    coaching strategy will need to be planned in order to assist students who may not fully

    understand the activity. The coaching activity may include planning a questioning

    strategy that will lead the student to understand the activity. This may include using a

    very basic Socratic method of questioning.

  • Another setback that I could have run into was of the students needed more than the

    allotted time to complete the activity. When planning my lesson I did not plan a strategy

    to wrap up the activity and did not plan enough time for the students to complete the

    activity. During my lesson this was very close to happening. The way that I handled this

    was by asking the students to quickly wrap up what they were working on. I do not

    believe this was the best way to end the activity. I could have had the students work in

    groups to complete the activity so that they could discuss their thoughts, to allow the

    students to swap answers after five minutes of attempting to complete the chart on their

    own, or have the actual activity completed during the presentation.

    While watching the tape of my presentation I noticed that I forgot to instruct the

    students to write the correct name of the spices next to the description on the chart,

    during the PowerPoint. To ensure that these distractions are given next time the lesson is

    taught, I could make sure that that portion of the directions are stated on the chart

    worksheet.

    QUESTIONING AND RESPONDING SEQUENCE

    I feel that I need to find a better way to respond to unexpected responses or questions

    that are stated while teaching.

    While teaching my lesson it was noticed that I allowed unexpected student comments

    to startle me. This situation also brought to my attention that I need to devise my own

    way of handling nay negative comments that I may encounter in the future from students.

    I believe that during my beginning teaching experiences I will have to mask my

    feelings when an unexpected comment is given. When I have obtained more experience I

    will devise a better strategy to handle situations like this.

  • ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT

    Another area that I found needed improvement was my instrument that I chose to

    assess the students. The instrument that I decided to use was to have the students devise

    a chart and provide descriptions of five additional spices. An assessment is a tool that is

    used to determine what the students have learned as a result of instruction (Kellough, R.

    & Kellough, N., 2003). The assessment instrument that I used did not assess what the

    students learned, but asked them to obtain more knowledge.

    An assessment that I could have assigned my students to determine what they learned,

    as well as what the already know; could have been to have them take the spices home,

    cook with them and write an essay. The essay would have explained what they did, what

    may have gone wrong or if it turned out to be a good quality product. Through this

    assignment I could have found out if they used any of the information provided in the

    presentation, if they added the spices at the correct time during cooking (i.e. adding

    whole spices at the beginning of the cooking process), and determined nay information

    that I needed to re-teach or cover for the first time in my next lesson.

    OVERALL ANALYSIS

    I believe that the areas I have stated that I need to make improvements in my teaching

    strategy will occur over time, lesson to lesson. I think that teach time I plan and teach a

    lesson I will notice something different where I can make improvements. Areas such as

    the ones stated above I believe I will improve upon as I gain more experience teaching

    and developing my teaching style.

  • The Spice Rack

    An overview of 15 spices commonly used in the kitchen. A description of each spice is given and how they are

    used in other cultures.Now lets see how well you did on

    the Matching the spices!

  • Why do chefs need to know about spices?

    When working in the kitchen you will work with a variety of spices.

    You need to know what they look like, how they taste, the forms they are available in, and how they effect the flavors of the food products.

  • Pungent or aromatic seasonings obtained from the bark, buds, fruits, roots, seeds, flowers or stems of various plants and trees.

  • are available in the whole, ground, sliced and chunk forms.

    should be stored in airtight containers in a cool place (50*F to 70*F), and away from sunlight

    should be kept no longer than 6 months

  • Spices are used to enhance the flavors of food products

    Spices should be added to cold foods several hours before serving; to allow the flavors to be released into the product.

    Spices should be used sparingly, so that they do not overpower the food product.

  • Add ground spices towards the end of the cooking process because it takes a shorter amount of time to release the flavors.

    Add whole spices during the beginning of the cooking process because it takes longer to release the flavors.

  • In the past spices have been used to crown emperors, to make medicines, and perfumes.

    Today the United States is the worlds leading spice buyer.

  • Allspice

  • Anise, Anise SeedDried greenish brown seeds of a plant

    in the parsley familyHas a sweet licorice flavor and aromaAvailable in dried, whole and ground

    formsUsed in cooking with fish, seafood, and

    cabbage, and preparing breads

  • Red pepperA hot pungent powder made from a

    variety of tropical chilies that are dried and ground

    Purchased GroundWhen cooking with the spice use only a

    small quantity Used in cooking with corn, crab, lobster,

    potatoes and tomatoes

  • Celery Seed !!!!

    " " " "

  • A dried, unopened flower bud from the

    tropical evergreen clove treeReddish brown in color an is shaped

    like a nailCan be purchased whole or groundUsed in cooking with apples, ham,

    pumpkin, sausage, tea, and preparing mulled wine.

  • Cinnamon

    # # # #

  • $ $ $ $ Dried fruit of a plant in

    the parsley familyHas a nutty flavorCan be amber, black,

    or white in colorPurchased whole or

    groundUsed in cooking

    curries, lamb, potatoes, sausages, and lentils

  • Ginger

    % % % %

  • & & & & The lacy bright membrane

    of the nutmeg seed, that has been dried

    Has a similar flavor of nutmeg with a hint of cinnamon

    When dried it has a yellowish-orange color

    Can be purchased ground or whole

    Used in cooking doughnuts, chicken, seafood and fruit

  • Mustard Seed $ $ $ $

    " " " "

  • ' ' ' ' The seed from a tropical evergreen tree Has a warm, spicy, and sweet aroma Can be purchased ground or whole Used in cooking broccoli, carrots,

    eggs, potatoes, ricotta cheese and stuffing

  • Paprika

    ( ( ( ( !!!! !!!!

    ) ) ) )

  • A berry that grows in grapelike clusters on the

    pepper plant Black peppercorns flavor is slightly hot, with a

    hint of sweetness White peppercorns flavor is milder than the

    black Green peppercorns flavor is less pungent than

    the others; available in a brine Pink peppercorns have a pungent; sweet flavor Purchased whole, cracked, coarsely ground, and

    fine ground Used in cooking cheese, sausages, steaks,

    strawberries, veal and a varietyof other foods

  • Saffron * * * * !!!!

  • The root of a tropical

    plant related to ginger Yellow-orange in color Has a bitter and

    pungent flavor Purchased in a powder

    form Used in cooking beans,

    chicken, lentils, lamb, and shellfish

  • & & & &

    + + + +